Parasites in human liver
The liver performs in human body a large number of functions, providing his life. Parasites in the liver lead to serious complications, metabolic disorders, in severe cases – fatal. Unfortunately, the liver often becomes a target for colonization with helminths and protozoa. This is due to the peculiarities of its structure, high intensity, high vascularity, the presence of nutrients for the life of parasites.
The content of the article:
Some parasites live in the liver?Most often, the parasites in the liver are due to non-compliance with elementary rules of hygiene, eating contaminated worms food and water, contact with animals – carriers of parasitic infection.
Types of liver parasites:
Amoeba. These simple the liver through the portal vein from the intestine to the bloodstream. Cause AMIBIOS, manifestations of which is the defeat of hepatocytes, impaired nutrition of the cells, the hepatic formation of blood clots. Complications: liver abscess, liver hepatitis.
Giardia. This species of microscopic protozoan parasite in the human digestive system, lungs, may be in the brain. According to medical statistics, every fifth inhabitant on the planet is a carrier of, or ill with giardiasis. Insidious this disease is that under adverse conditions Giardia can be covered by a keratin sheath, forming cysts, and to be in this state for several years. Cause complications such as inflammation of the liver and gallbladder (hepatitis and cholecystitis).
- Roundworm. Round worms enter the liver from the intestine through the Vater nipple, portal vein, bile ducts. Most often they occur in choledocho, at least – in the ducts of the liver. The incidence of Ascaris liver diagnosed by accident during surgery. Parasites provoke ascaridia abscesses of the liver, breaks into the peritoneal cavity, as well as hepatitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis.
The Echinococcus. Belt of the parasite, appearing in the human body afterfalling eggs with the wool of animals, or after contact of soil particles with dirty vegetables and fruits. Is an area which develops in a fluid head with a neck and segments of the parasite. The accumulation of cysts – alveolar form of hydatid disease. Such a colony of worms can be up to 10 years, constantly expanding and putting pressure on nearby tissues and organs. The toxins from the cysts of Echinococcus that affect the liver, causing complications such as hepatitis, jaundice, ascites, allergic.
Alveolar. Tape worms, similar in way of life and the consequences for the organism for Echinococcus. A person infected with oncospheres (eggs) of alveoli in contact with the wool, the meat of wild and domestic animals in the use of mushrooms, berries, water, herbs, contamination of the helminth. Oncospheres enter the liver with the flow of blood through the portal vein. It formed a multi-chamber cyst – parvocysta. This growth continues for several years. During this time, the liver undergoes structural changes: disrupted her circulation, suffer from hepatic vessels. The consequences of alveococcosis – obstructive jaundice, liver necrosis, hepatitis.
Cat or Siberian Fluke. This flat leaf-shaped worms cause opisthorchiasis, enters the body with contaminated fish, shellfish or through contact with a sick person. The liver thickens, it occur abscesses. Complications of opisthorchiasis – cirrhosis of the liver, purulent cholecystitis, peritonitis, hepatomegaly (increase body).
Shistosoma. Flat the parasite penetrates through contact with a carrier of the disease through contaminated water. It can be introduced during contact with the skin, and spread through the circulatory system throughout the body. In the liver causes hemorrhage, hepatic failure may lead to death.
- Leishmania. These protozoa enter the body from the bites of mosquitoes, where and are carried to all organs. Live inside cells, during latent leishmaniasis can hardly manifest itself important symptoms. In the liver replaces its cells (hepatocytes) fibrous tissue. There are pockets of necrosis, tissue inflammation (hepatitis).
Symptoms of parasites in the liver
Symptoms of parasites in the liver depends on the species of parasite, stage of disease, duration of infestation. There are both General and specific for each disease symptoms.
Symptoms common to liver worms:
- A feeling of weakness, fatigue;
- The decrease in the intensity of mental processes (memory, attention);
- Sleep disorders (insomnia, drowsiness);
The alternation of diarrhea and constipation.
The symptoms of amebiasis:
- Fever, low-grade fever;
- Liver enlargement, tenderness;
- Pain radiating to the right shoulder;
- Leukocytosis, eosinophilia.
The symptoms of giardiasis:
- Pale skin in combination with a normal hemoglobin level;
- Peeling, cracked and dry border of the lips;
- "Marble nose" in mass intoxication;
- Uneven skin color (from light yellow to red-brick);
Vomiting and diarrhea;
- Bitter taste in the mouth;
- Mood swings;
- Loss of appetite;
- Weight loss, decreased immunity.
The symptoms of echinococcosis:
Allergic urticaria, diarrhea, caused by the immune response to the toxin;
- A dull, aching pain under the right rib;
- Jaundice (yellowing of sclera of eyes, skin).
Symptoms of ascariasis in the liver of this species of worms can be very mild or not occur at all. Diagnosed fatigue, allergic urticaria, alternating periods of poor appetite with a kind of gluttony.
The symptoms of opisthorchiasis:
- Severe pain in the muscles of the extremities;
- Swelling of facial tissues;
- Hyperthermia up to 40°C;
- Enlargement of the liver;
- Attacks of pain in the right upper quadrant;
Symptoms of schistosomiasis:
- Pain in the abdomen;
- Swelling and rash on the skin;
- Diarrhea with blood and mucus;
- Nausea and vomiting.
Symptoms of alveococcosis:
- Constant pain in the liver and in the epigastric region;
- Detection of dense node palpation;
- Belching, nausea, vomiting;
- Intense jaundice with greenish tinge, itching of the extremities.
Diagnosis of helminth infections is in addition to the study of symptoms and patient history, conducting blood tests, serological tests for antibodies to each species of the parasite.
Treatment of parasites in the liver
Treatment of parasites in the liver is carried out exclusively under the guidance of an infectious disease physician or helminthology. The use of anthelmintic drugs has its own peculiarities – if you incorrectly calculated the dosage parasites do not die, but migrate into other bodies, sometimes atypical for their habitat. With a massive invasion of a huge number of dead worms simply poisons the body decay products can clog vital organs, the respiratory tract, the lumen of the intestine and provoke asphyxiation, death.
Treatment of echinococcosis, alveococcosis is only possible by surgery, as huge cysts and servocity impossible to remove with the help of medications. Too low a dose will lead to the transition of the disease into a chronic form with long-term, the transition of some helminths in the form of cysts.
Anthelmintic drugs for the liver:
- A universal tool for a wide spectrum of action: Albendazole, Praziquantel, Mebendazole is the treatment of ascariasis, opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis;
- Pyrantel, Piperazine, Levamisole – treatment of ascariasis;
- Trichopolum, Tinidazole, Furazolidone treatment giardiasis;
- Chiniofon, Enteroseptol, Amberger, Degidroemetin – treatment of amebiasis.
The next step after antihelminthic treatment is the restoration of the liver tissue. Used in order hepatoprotectors, sorbents. Good results brings diet, optimal alternation of sleep and rest. To reduce the risk of liver worms is enough to observe hygienic measures,to wash vegetables and fruits, comply with heat treatment products.