Magnesium sulfate – instructions for use, side effects
Magnesium sulfate is the drug, which has magnesium ions, and sulfate ions. Magnesium sulfate is used in medical practice for a long time, that allows to judge about its high efficiency in treatment of a large number of pathologies.
Magnesium sulfate is used as antiarrhythmic, anticonvulsant, vasodilator, it is prescribed to reduce blood pressure levels. The drug can act as an antispasmodic, as a sedative, laxative and cholagogue. It is often prescribed obstetrician-gynecologists to reduce the contractile activity of the uterus, to prevent premature birth. Due to this broad spectrum of action of the drug, Magnesium sulfate refers to symptomatic tools that are used to help with a variety of diseases.
The content of the article:
- Other names magnesium sulfate
- Pharmacological group release form
- The pharmacological properties and therapeutic effect
- Indications for use of magnesium sulfate
- Instructions for use of magnesium sulfate
- Overdose of Magnesium sulfate
- The use of magnesium sulfate in pregnancy
- The use of magnesium sulfate in children
- The use of magnesium sulfate for other purposes
- Contraindications to magnesium sulfate
- Side effects when taking magnesium sulfate
Other names magnesium sulfate
As the drug is used for a long time, it is not surprising that he has won many other titles that are often used in colloquial speech people who do not have medical education. For example, such names include: bitter or Epsom salt, magnesium, magnesium sulfate. Also, magnesium Sulfate is called heptahydrate magnesium sulfate. However, the most common name of this drug is magnesium.
When a doctor prescribes magnesium Sulfate to the patient, in the form of recipe will be the following entry:
- Rp.: Sol. Magnesil sulfatis 25% 10.0 ml
- D. t. d. №10 in amp.
- S. to enter 1 time per day 2 ml.
The concentration of the solution of the drugmay be different in this recipe it is specified in percent after the phrase Magnesil sulfatis. Next is the amount of a medicine (here it is equal to 10 ml).
D. t. d. №10 in amp. – this entry indicates how many vials have to patient. In this case, the patient will be given 10 vials. The last line carries information regarding what how to use the drug and how many drugs need to enter the patient.
Pharmacological group release form
Since the drug has many therapeutic effects, it simultaneously refers to vasodilators and sedatives. Furthermore magnesium Sulfate is a trace mineral.
You can find two forms of release of the drug, including powder and ready solution in ampoules.
The volume of the powder packets can be equated to 50 g, 25 g, 20 g, 10 g. Before application the powder is diluted in water to obtain a suspension. It can be taken orally.
The volume of the ampoules is 30 ml, 20 ml, 10 ml and 5 ml concentration of the drug is also diverse and can be 20 or 25%. That is, in 100 ml of solution will have 20 or 25 g drugs.
Other components in the composition of the ampoules or in powder packets no. It contains only magnesium Sulfate, which is the main active ingredient.
The pharmacological properties and therapeutic effect
Magnesium sulfate has many therapeutic effects, which will vary depending on how it is used: taken orally or injected as an injection.
List of properties owned by the drug:
- Elimination of seizures.
- Reduction in blood pressure.
- Anti-arrhythmic effect.
- Withdrawal spasms.
- Sedative effects.
- Relaxation of uterine muscles (tocolytic effect).
- Laxative action.
- Choleretic effect.
If the patient takes the drug orally in the form ofsuspension, he receives a laxative and choleretic effect. After getting into the digestive tract, magnesium sulfate contributes to irritation of the nerves of the duodenum, whereby it is possible to achieve a choleretic action.
Magnesium sulfate is not absorbed into the systemic circulation, and promotes enhanced filling of the intestine with water. The result is achieved by the laxative effect. Rasizada fecal matter to increase in volume, and the bowel is much easier and faster.
The small portion of the drug, which still enters the bloodstream and is excreted by the kidneys. Therefore, we can say that magnesium Sulfate has a weak diuretic effect.
Experts recommend taking magnesium Sulfate intoxication with salts of heavy metals. In this case, the body will start a chemical reaction in which the magnesium Sulfate acts as an antidote. It not only binds salts of heavy metals, but also promotes their prompt removal from the body.
After oral administration of the drug effect will come after at least half an hour and maximum 3 hours. The duration of the drug – up to 6 hours.
With regard to the solution of magnesia, it is used either in the form of injection, or used topically. To provide the local effect of solution impregnated dressings and bandages, which impose on the wound.
It is possible to use solution for performing electrophoresis, for example, in the treatment of diseases of the nervous system or the cardiovascular system. Very often, electrophoresis with magnesium Sulfate is used to remove warts.
It should be noted that intravenous and intramuscular use of the drug. It is used for lowering blood pressure, to provide sedation to relieve convulsions, to expand the vessels, for the relief of Artemii. However, if you exceed the dosage will suffer a serious injury. Enter intravenous magnesium Sulfate is able to exert a sedative effect, inhibits the activity of the Central nervous system and, in General, works as narkotikaproblem substance. This effect is based on the fact that magnesium competes with calcium ion. As a result, the calcium is displaced from the molecular bundles, which leads to a decrease in the level of acetylcholine, which is responsible for muscle and vascular tone and is also involved in conduction of nerve impulses.
The elimination of convulsions with magnesium sulfate is due to the fact that magnesium ions displace acetylcholine from the neuromuscular bundles and take his place. They block the transmissionnerve impulses to the muscles, and cramps cease. Adjusting dosage to achieve a sedative, analgesic or hypnotic effect.
To eliminate the cardiac arrhythmia by administering magnesium Sulphate can be due to its ability to reduce the excitation of muscle fibers, including cardiac muscle. In addition, the drug helps to normalize the structure and efficiency of the membranes of the muscle cells of the heart. Magnesium sulfate in addition to having protective effects on the heart, promotes vasodilation, inhibits the formation of blood clots.
Very often magnesium Sulfate use in obstetrics, when there is a threat of premature birth, due to the tocolytic effect of the drug. The smooth muscles of the uterus relax under the influence of magnesium ions, is the dilation of blood vessels is inhibited contractile activity. As a result, the threat of premature birth and miscarriage is reduced.
The effect is achieved almost instantly with intravenous administration of the drug. It lasts at least 30 minutes. If the drug is administered intramuscularly, the effect occurs after 60 minutes. However, it will last at least 3 hours.
Indications for use of magnesium sulfate
Indications magnesium Sulfate is quite extensive. In some cases it is administered in the form of injections (in the form of a solution), and in other cases, given orally (in form of suspension).
Conditions in which magnesium sulfate injection is administered
Conditions in which magnesium sulfate given orally
Nonspecific inflammation of the bile ducts (cholangitis).
High blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis, accompanied by swelling of the brain.
Late toxemia of pregnancy (eclampsia).
Inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis).
Encephalopathy of the brain.
Low levels of magnesium in the body, which can be triggered by various factors, for example, chronic alcoholism, stress, diuretics, etc.
As a means for emptying the bowel before the upcoming surgery or before other medical actions.
The condition of the body in which there is an increased need for magnesium. For example, while carryingchild, when errors in the diet, prolonged stress, in adolescence, etc.
Gallbladder dyskinesia hypotonic nature.
Comprehensive treatment of women during threatened miscarriage or threatened preterm birth.
Duodenal intubation of the gallbladder.
Arrhythmia of the heart.
Clinical form of CHD is angina.
Cramps due to the violation of calcium metabolism in the body (tetany).
Intoxication with salts barjami, salts of heavy metals, arsenic, tetraethyl lead.
Comprehensive treatment of bronchial asthma.
Concussion of the brain.
Instructions for use of magnesium sulfate
Since there are two forms of release of the magnesium Sulfate, the instructions for use for powder and solution will vary.
The use of magnesium Sulfate in powder form
Pure powdered magnesium Sulfate inside not used. It needs to be dissolved in water to form a slurry. Water should be boiled use. The dependency between a drug and a meal there.
- To obtain a choleretic effect is required in 100 ml of water dissolving 20-25 mg of powder. Take the solution 3 times a day a tablespoon. To enhance the effect, you should take the drug before meals.
- If intoxication by salts of barium perform gastric lavage solution of Magnesium sulfate in 1% concentration. In order to prepare such a composition will need 100 ml of water and 1 g powder. After the wash procedure is completed, the patient offer a 10-12% solution of magnesium Sulfate orally. To obtain this concentration is diluted to 20-25 g of the drug in 200 ml of water.
- If intoxication by mercury, lead or arsenic, shown intravenous administration of the drug. To prepare the solution to be 100 mlwater and 5-10 mg of powder. One-time injected to 10 ml of solution.
- To perform the duodenal sounding, you can use a solution of 10% and 25% concentration. To obtain a 10% solution taking 10 g powder and 100 ml of water, and to obtain a 25% solution take 12.5 g powder and 50 ml of water. Then the warm solution was injected in the probe, which is used to execute sensing of the gallbladder. If you use a 10% solution, you will need 100 ml of liquid, and if you use a 25% solution, you will need 50 ml.
The use of Magnesium sulfate as a laxative
To achieve a laxative effect use of Magnesium sulfate in powder form. Necessary to take it in the evening or in the morning, immediately after awakening and before meals. Previously from the powder to prepare a slurry. Dosage for children over the age of 15 and for adults is 10 – 30 g of the drug diluted in half a glass of water.
If magnesium Sulfate is administered to a child below 15 years of age, the dose is calculated from his age (1 g – 1 year 6 g – 6 years).
To speed up bowel movements, it is necessary to take a large amount of warm water. Then the effect will be felt after 60 minutes (maximum, 3 hours later). The drug is banned for use for several days without a break, as it will contribute to inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.
Most often, Magnesium sulfate is prescribed once to eliminate acute constipation, or if you need to quickly release the gut. You can take the drug after conducting anti-parasitic therapy.
Perhaps the use of enemas with a solution of the powder. To prepare it you'll need 20-30 g the drug, which is dissolved in 100 ml of water.
Magnesium sulfate for injections
If the drug is in capsules, that he is ready to use. The concentration of Magnesium sulfate can be 20 and 25%. Depending on how fast you need to get the desired effect, the drug is administered intravenously or intramuscularly.
So, to eliminate cramps, whilehypertensive crisis, arrhythmia Magnesium sulfate is administered intravenously. Act preparation begins almost immediately. Intramuscularly administered drug in the case when you want to obtain a long time effect.
The speed for both intravenous and intramuscular administration of the drug should not exceed 1 ml per minute. A day maximum dose equal 40 g. That is, the amount of the injected drug in a 20% concentration should not exceed 200 ml, and 25% concentration of 160 ml.
There are certain restrictions for patients with renal insufficiency. For them the daily dose of the drug should not be more 20 g. Accordingly, not more than 80 ml of 25% solution and 100 ml of a 20% solution.
Intramuscular administration of Magnesium sulfate
It intramuscular injection practice in most cases (except for emergency situations, including: hypertensive crisis, eclampsia, seizures).
Patients often prescribe a 20-25% solution of Magnesium sulfate once or twice a day. To perform a one shot take from 5 to 20 ml. The treatment duration is 14-21 days.
For the relief of muscular or mental excitement the drug is administered once in the amount of 5-25 ml (solution 25% concentration).
If Magnesium sulfate is used as an anesthetic during labor, 25% solution is administered in an amount of from 5 to 20 ml.
For the relief of convulsions in a child the drug is administered once, calculating the dose based on the patient's body mass (0.2 ml/kg 20% solution). The calculation of the dose for a child weighing 20 kg as follows: a 0.2*20= 4 ml solution of 20-Oh concentration.
If a woman has observed severe eclampsia or eclampsia moderate severity, then it is assigned 10 to 20 ml, 25% concentration. The number of injections should not exceed 4 times a day. The time interval between injections is 4 hours. After the patient's condition returns to normal, the introduction of a drug stop.
To eliminate spastic pain in the intestine, bladder and other organs, Magnesium sulfate is mixed with Novocaine. This will require a 0.5%-Novocaine solution and 25% solution of Magnesium sulfate (5 ml).
Intravenous administration of Magnesium sulfate
The indications for intravenous administration of the drug are conditions such as: myocardial infarction, hypertensive crisis, and other direct threats to the life of the patient. If the condition of the patient heavy, he prescribed 2-fold introduction of the drug (per day). Dose for 1 time is 5-20 ml of a 20% solution.
If the patient has severe pain caused by spazmirovannah muscles of the bladder or bowel, once introduced 10 ml of a 5% solution of the drug.
On the background of intoxication with salts of heavy metals administered 5 or 10 ml of Magnesium sulfate in a 10% concentration. In this case it is possible to bind toxic components that fall into the bloodstream.
During prolonged treatment, the doctors should carry out regular measurements of blood pressure in a patient, monitor the heart, kidney and tendon reflexes. When in parallel, the patient is administered drugs of magnesium and calcium, the solutions it needs to in a different vein.
Overdose of Magnesium sulfate
Possible overdose of Magnesium sulfate in any method of administration, including, and after oral administration.
If there is injecting excess doses, it will be expressed in the following signs:
Nausea and vomiting.
- A sharp decline in blood pressure to very low values.
- The absence of knee reflex.
- CNS depression and respiratory arrest.
For the relief of such life-threatening conditions, intravenous Calcium chloride or Calcium gluconate in a 10% concentration. The volume of the injected solution, which acts as an antidote, may be from 5 to 10 ml. the patient Additionally carry oxygen therapy, if there is a need of a patient connected to a respirator. To speed up the withdrawal of excess doses of the drug from the body helps the procedure of hemodialysis (peritoneal dialysis). If required, the doctors regulate the Central nervous system, heart and blood vessels.
If you happen to overdose of Magnesium sulfate when taken orally, the patient develops severe diarrhea. To her relief, the person appointed Antidiarrhoeal drugs such as Loperamide and rehydration products (Regidron). This will stop the diarrhea and replenish the lost reserves of fluid and electrolytes.
The use of magnesium sulfate in pregnancy
Women who bears a child, of Magnesium sulfate administered to eliminate the high tone of the uterus, allowing you to avoid the beginning of premature birth. The drug is rapidly and effectively eliminates the reduction of uterine muscles and the risk of miscarriage or early onset of labour is eliminated.
However, self-treatment is not acceptable. The drug is administered exclusively under medical supervision in conditions of a hospital.
As for the safety of the fetus and the addition of Magnesium sulfate, this subject was not conducted the necessary studies. However, the drug is used to treat pregnant women for quite a long time, and thanks to him, there appeared a huge number of children. Therefore, Magnesium sulfate is considered safe for the fetus if it is used correctly.
Uncontrolled use of the drug is strictly prohibited. It is used only when there is no possibility to use other means to relieve hypertonicity of the uterine muscle. We are talking about what the doctor should not be doubt regarding the use of Magnesium sulfate for pregnant woman and the fetus.
During the intravenous administration of the drug, he easily passes the placental barrier and enters the bloodstream of the child. In the end, his body creates the same concentration of the active substance as in the body of the mother. Accordingly, therapeutic effects are transferred to the fetus. The child may fall in blood pressure, depression of respiratory functions, if the drug was introduced before its time of birth.
So the doctors give the injection women for 2 hours before giving birth. The exceptions are seizures, which arise on the background of eclampsia.
If necessary, the drug is injected continuously. The speed of flow must not exceed 8 ml per hour (solution 25%). It is important that doctors carried out continuous monitoring of the status of women. It is necessary to monitor the level of drug in the blood, respiratory rate, pressure level and preservation of the reflexes of the patient.
The use of magnesium sulfate in children
In children Magnesium sulfate used as a laxativetool that helps to gently cleanse the bowel. For this, the drug in powdered form is dissolved in water and offer the child to drink the required dose. Best to do it before the night's rest or in the morning, before Breakfast.
Depending on age, the dose will be as follows:
- From 5 to 10 g – 6-12 years.
- 10 g – 12-15 years.
- 10-30 g – over 15 years of age and adults.
Here are dose of the powder, which is prescribed for 1 admission. You can also offer your child as many grams of the drug, how old he is. That is, for each year of life have 1 g drugs. This rule can be used for children aged 6 years and older. For children under 6 years of age Magnesium sulfate, as a rule, not appointed.
Moreover, the use of the drug in children under one year is considered dangerous. Failure to observe this recommendation could lead to serious health problems: can cause respiratory depression and Central nervous system, to trigger a fall in pressure and dehydration.
In addition to oral administration it is possible to use Magnesium sulfate in mikroklizmah. You need to pre-prepare a solution of the drug. 100 ml of warm water needs 20 to 30 g powder. Rectum injected with 50-100 ml of fluid.
Intravenous children is possible only to eliminate seizures. The calculation of the dose for a solution of 20% concentration: 0,1-0,2 ml 1 kg the weight of the child. Thus, its weight in 20 kg 0,1-0,2*20=2-4 ml of the drug.
The use of magnesium sulfate for other purposes
As the list of effects from the use of drugs is quite extensive, it is used for different purposes. Below are listed the most common options.
Cleansing the body and getting rid of excess weight
Modern nutritionists recommend to their clients before starting a particular diet to purge the body using the Magnesium sulfate. In this way it will be easier to start the process of losing weight, especially when fasting. The drug acts as a mild laxative, which dilutes the fecal masses and facilitates theirexcretion from the body.
It is important to note that the drug can be used only in the first day of the diet, in the future its use is irrational. You should not take Magnesium sulfate during starvation. With its help the body of toxins, and the symptoms that provoked a sharp rejection of food, better tolerated.
There are two possible use of the drug before the diet:
- You need 30 g powder dissolved in half Cup warm water and drink it before going to bed or 30 minutes before meals.
- The same amount of the drug you need to drink in the morning, an hour after a meal. Effect can be expected within 4-6 hours.
Sometimes doctors are allowed to take the drug in the first day of fasting. However, the person will need until the end of this day to refuse to accept any food, but should be used with adequate drinking regime. The day will need to drink at least 2 liters water.
The main danger of the drug during fasting, is the development of diarrhea, fainting, vomiting. In addition, a person can begin dysbacteriosis of the intestine and dehydration.
The taking baths with magnesium sulphate
Magnesium sulfate has been for many years used for physiotherapy. Bath with this drug to reduce pain, fatigue, relieve nervousness, physical and emotional stress. Take baths before the night's rest, no more than once a day.
Effects that can be obtained after administration of Magnesium sulfate:
- The microcirculation of blood.
- The elimination of spasm of the capillaries.
- The decrease in blood pressure.
- Reducing the risk of thrombosis.
- The fight against cellulite.
- The removal of tone from the muscles.
- The lifting of bronchospasm.
- Prevention of convulsions with high blood pressure during pregnancy.
- The acceleration of the recovery after various injuries and diseases by increasing metabolic processes.
A course of therapeutic baths can be up to 15 procedures. Prevention you can take these baths to 2 times a 7 days. At 1 time, you will need 100 g drug500 g sea salt and 50 g ordinary salt. The water temperature must not exceed 39 degrees. Immersion should be for half an hour, but no more. After taking a bath should be another half an hour to relax, as the man happens vasodilation and decrease blood pressure levels.
Conducting tyubazh with magnesium sulfate
Tyubazh is cleaning the gallbladder and liver. The best time for the procedure is from 6 to 8 PM. Previously, the person will need to take 1 tablet of antispasmodic (no-Spa). The procedure will require 0,5-1 l the prepared solution. 100 ml should be taken 30 g powder.
20 minutes should drink 0,5-1 l of the drug, then you should lie on your right side and attach to it a heating pad (on the stomach area where the liver). In this position you will need to spend 2 hours.
Tyubazh course consists of 10-16 treatments. Spend them 1 time per 7 days. It is possible that after tyubazh the man in the mouth will appear a bitter taste. To resolve to do anything it should not, it will be held independently. Limitations to the procedure: the acute phase of cholecystitis, diseases of the digestive tract (ulcers and erosion of the stomach and intestines).
Compresses with magnesium Sulfate
Magnesium sulfate is used for warm compresses, which have analgesic and resolving effect. Perhaps the overlay in place DTP vaccination in the child.
For a poultice you will need cheesecloth, folded in 8 layers and moistened in a solution of magnesium Sulfate 25% concentration. The resulting poultice is applied to the affected area, covering the top of the special paper. Paper insulated with wool, which is fixed with a bandage.
The dwell time of the bags is 6 to 8 hours. After removing the skin rinse with warm water, dried and applied to the treatment site fat cream.
Contraindications to magnesium sulfate
Contraindications to injections:
- Individual intolerance to magnesium Sulfate.
- High magnesium levels in the blood.
- Low heart rate.
- Respiratory depression.
- 2 hours before the onset of labour.
- Renal failure (KK less 20 ml/min).
- Atrioventrikuliarna blockade.
Contraindications for oral intake:
- Bleeding of the intestine and obstruction.
- Inflammation of the Appendix.
- Dehydration of the body.
Limitations to the use of drugs:
- Diseases of the respiratory system.
- Renal failure.
- Inflammatory processes in the digestive system.
Side effects when taking magnesium sulfate
With either method, the use of magnesium Sulfate in the form of injections, you may experience the following side effects:
- Hot flashes and increased sweating.
- The intensification of anxiety.
- Decrease heart rate.
- Heart block.
- Pronounced sedative effect.
- The absence of reflexes.
- Increased frequency of urination.
Nausea and vomiting.
In oral administration of the drug may develop diarrhea, vomiting and nausea, inflammation of the digestive system.
Most of the comments from people who used Magnesium sulfate for reducing weight, is to ensure that the drug really works. It promotes a complete and quality bowel movement. However, some people have a laxative effect is very strong, pain in the abdomen. Therefore, to use the drug caution and only if absolutely necessary.
Another part of the feedback is negative. Women who have used Magnesium sulfate for weight loss, suffering at least from severe diarrhea. It can even be fatal due topossible dehydration after taking the drug. Therefore, it is not recommended independently of its application to achieve aesthetic goals.
The cost of the drug is low. It can be produced both domestic and foreign manufacturers, however, the difference in composition will not.
The average cost of Magnesium sulfate following: