Causes, symptoms and treatment of Streptococcus
Not all species of Streptococcus are dangerous to human health, moreover in this group, there are even microbes that benefit. The fact of the bacteria should not be cause for alarm, because to avoid it is almost impossible, as impossible to completely eradicate the strep from your body. A strong immune system and the observance of elementary rules of personal hygiene is good reason to expect that the disease will pass you by.
Nevertheless, all concerned with the question of what to do if you or your loved ones do get sick: what medicines to take, and what complications to worry about. Today we will tell you everything about the Streptococcus and the diseases they cause, and methods of diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal infections.
The content of the article:
What is Streptococcus?
From a scientific point of view, Streptococcus is a member of the family Streptococcaceae, spherical or ovoid asporogenous gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium. Let's understand these complex terms and "translate" them into simple human language: streptococci have the form of regular or slightly elongated ball, do not form spores do not have flagella cannot move, but can live in the complete absence of oxygen.
If you look at the streptococci through a microscope, we can see that they never meet alone, only in pairs or in proper combinations. In nature these bacteria are very widespread: they are in the soil,and on the surface of plants and body of animals and humans. Streptococci are very resistant to heat and freezing, and even lying in the roadside dust over the years, they retain the ability to reproduce. However, they are easy to defeat with antibiotics penicillin, macrolides, or sulfonamides.
To streptococcal colony started to develop, she needs the nutrient medium in the form of whey, sweet solution or blood. In laboratories bacteria artificially create favorable conditions to observe how they multiply, ferment carbohydrates, excreting acid and toxins. Colony streptococci forms on the surface of a liquid or solid nutrient material is opaque or greenish film. Study its chemical composition and properties has allowed scientists to determine the virulence factors of streptococci and to determine the reasons for the development of streptococcal infections in humans.
Causes of streptococcal infectionsThe cause of almost all streptococcal infections is beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, as it is able to destroy red blood cells. In the process of living streptococci secrete several toxins and poisons that have a deleterious effect on the human body. This explains the unpleasant symptoms of diseases caused by Streptococcus: pain, fever, weakness, nausea.
The virulence factors of Streptococcus following:
- Streptolysin — the main poison, violating the integrity of red blood cells and heart;
Scarlatinous erythrogenic — toxin, which dilate the capillaries, and skin rash occurs with scarlet fever;
- Leukocidin , the enzyme that destroys the immune blood cells – white blood cells, and thereby suppresses our natural defence against infections;
- Necrotoxin and lethal toxin – toxins that cause tissue death;
- Hyaluronidase, amylase, streptokinase and proteinase – enzymes by which streptococci are eating healthy tissue and spread throughout the body.
In place of the introduction and expansion of a colony of Streptococcus inflammation occurs that disturbs a person severe pain and swelling. With the development of the disease the toxins and the poisons secreted by the bacteria, are carried by the flow of blood through the body, so the streptococcal infection is always accompanied by malaise, and in severe cases, large-scale intoxication, until vomiting,dehydration and mental confusion. The lymphatic system responds to disease by the engorgement of the lymph nodes located near the source of inflammation.
Since streptococci and their metabolic products are alien to our body, the immune system responds to them as a powerful allergen, and trying to develop antibodies. The most dangerous consequence of this process is autoimmune diseases, when our body ceases to recognize the modified Streptococcus tissue and begins to attack them. Examples of severe complications: glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune inflammation of the membranes of the heart (endocarditis, myocarditis, pericarditis).
Streptococci are divided into three groups according to the type of hemolysis:
Alpha-hemolytic or viridans — Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae;
- Beta-hemolytic — Streptococcus pyogenes;
- Newemailusecase — Streptococcus anhaemolyticus.
For medicine have a value that is the second type streptococci, beta-hemolytic:
Streptococcus pyogenes is the so-called pyogenic streptococci, which cause sore throat in adults and scarlet fever in children, and give serious complications such as glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever and endocarditis;
- Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecies — enterococci, the most tenacious of bacteria in this family that cause purulent inflammation in the abdominal cavity and the heart;
- Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria responsible for most streptococcal lesions of the urinary organs and postnatal inflammation of the uterine endometrium in women.
As for the first and third types of streptococci, and viridans phenolicresin, it's just bacteria-saprophytes, which feed off human, but almost never cause serious diseases, because they do not have the ability to destroy red blood cells.
For the sake of justice it is worth mentioning the beneficial bacteria from this family – lactic acid Streptococcus. With his help dairies make all your favorite dairy products: kefir, yogurt, fermented baked milk, sour cream. The same microbe can help people with lactase deficiency is a rare disease which is expressed in lactase deficiency –the enzyme needed to digest lactose, i.e. milk sugar. Sometimes Streptococcus thermophilus give infants for the prevention of severe regurgitation.
Streptococcus in adultsIn adults, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus is most often caused by acute tonsillitis, that is, a sore throat, or pharyngitis less serious inflammation of the upper part of the oropharynx. Much less frequently this bacteria becomes a cause of otitis media, dental caries, pneumonia, dermatitis, erysipelas.
Pharyngitiscaused by Streptococcus, always starts suddenly, as it has a very short incubation period and is characterized by very striking symptoms are: severe pain on swallowing, low-grade (low) fever, chills and General weakness. The patient is so painful to swallow that sometimes he completely loses his appetite. Dyspepsia seldom accompany streptococcal pharyngitis, but it is often complicated by enlargement and tenderness of the submandibular lymph nodes, hoarseness and superficial, dry cough.
The physician at the reception quickly diagnose pharyngitis by visual examination of the pharynx: mucosa edematous, bright red, covered with a gray coating, tonsils swollen, one can see al the follicles in the form of a donut. Streptococcal pharyngitis is almost always combined with a runny nose, and mucus transparent, and is so abundant that it may cause maceration (soaking) of the skin under the nose. Patient prescribed local antiseptic for the throat spray or lozenges, oral antibiotics are no no need.
Usually the disease subsides as suddenly as it had begun, and lasts a short time – 3-6 days. Victims of pharyngitis are mostly young or elderly with weakened immune systems in contact with a sick person who used his dishes or toothbrush. Although pharyngitis is a widespread and serious disease, it can give very unpleasant complications.
Consequences of pharyngitis can be:
Streptococcal sore throat (acute tonsillitis) can turn into a real disaster for the adult patient, especially the elderly, because of untimely and low-quality treatment of this disease often causes serious complications on heart, kidneys and joints.
The factors contributing to the development of acute streptococcal tonsillitis:
- The weakening of the General and local immunity;
- Other recent bacterial or viral infection;
- The negative impact of external factors;
- Prolonged contact with the sick person and his / her belongings.
Sore throat begins suddenly, like strep throat – the night before the patient becomes painful to swallow, and the next morning throat is completely covered by the infection. Toxins are carried by the bloodstream throughout the body, causing swollen lymph nodes, fever, chills, weakness, anxiety, and sometimes mental confusion and even seizures.
Symptoms of angina:
- Severe pain in the throat;
- Febrile temperature;
- Body aches;
- Submandibular lymphadenitis;
- Swelling and redness of the mucous membrane of the pharynx;
- Enlarged tonsils;
- The appearance of the mucous membrane of the throat loose, greyish or yellowish plaque, and sometimes purulent tubes;
- In blood strong leukocytosis, C-reactive protein, ESR acceleration.
Have strep throat, there are two types of complications:
- Suppurative – otitis media, sinusitis, dental abscess;
Purulent – rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, syndrome of toxic shock, myocarditis, endocarditis, pericarditis.
Treatment of angina is carried out using local antiseptics, but if the inflammation fails to stop within 3-5 days, and the body covered of total intoxication, it is necessary to resort to antibiotics to prevent complications.
Streptococcus in childrenStreptococcus is very dangerous for newborn babies: if occurs in utero infection, the child is born with a high temperature, subcutaneousbruises, bleeding from the mouth, shortness of breath, and sometimes with inflammation of the meninges. Despite the high level of development of modern perinatal medicine to save these children is not always possible.
All streptococcal infection in children are divided into two groups:
Primary – sore throat, scarlet fever, otitis media, pharyngitis, laryngitis, impetigo;
- Secondary – rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, endocarditis, sepsis.
The leaders in the frequency of morbidity in children are strep throat and scarlet fever. Some parents think these diseases are completely different, and some, on the contrary, confuse them with each other. In fact, scarlet fever is a severe form of strep throat accompanied by a skin rash.
The disease is very contagious, and spreads among the pupils of kindergartens and schools with the speed of a forest fire. Sick with scarlet fever usually children aged two to ten years, and only once, because the disease formed a strong immunity. It is important to understand that the cause of scarlet fever is not the Streptococcus, and it erythrogenic toxin, which causes severe poisoning of the body until the clouding of consciousness tochechnoi red rash which the pediatrician can accurately distinguish scarlet fever from the usual sore throats.
It is customary to distinguish three forms of scarlet fever:
- Easy — the disease lasts 3-5 days and is not accompanied by large-scale intoxication;
- Medium–lasts a week, has a strong poisoning of the body and a large area of the lesions;
Heavy – may take several weeks and go to one of the pathological forms: toxic or septic. Toxic scarlet fever is manifested by loss of consciousness, dehydration and convulsions, and septic – strong lymphadenitis and necrotic angina.
Scarlet fever, like all streptococcal infection has a short incubation period and affects the child suddenly, and lasts an average of 10 days.
The symptoms of scarlet fever:
High fever, chills, body aches, headache, and severe pain when swallowing;
Rapid pulse, tachycardia;
- General weakness, lethargy, drowsiness;
- Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, loss of appetite;
- Typical puffy face and an unhealthy sheen of the conjunctiva;
- a Very strong increase and tenderness of the submandibular lymph nodes up to the impossibility to open a mouth and swallow food;
- Redness of the skin and the appearance on them of small roseola or papules, first on the upper part of the body, and in a few days and on the limbs. It looks like goose bumps, though on the cheeks rash merges and forms a red crust;
- The pallor of nasolabial triangle, combined with cherry lips;
- Coated tongue gray bloom, which takes place three days later, starting from the tip, and the entire surface becomes bright red with protruding papillae. The language resembles raspberry;
- Syndrome Paste – accumulation of rash in skin folds and strong court;
- Dizziness up to fainting, rarely – delusions, hallucinations, and seizures.
Painful symptoms increase during the first three days of disease onset, and then gradually fade. The number and severity of rash are reduced, the skin becomes pale and dry, sometimes the child on the palms and feet, she goes all layers. The body produces antibodies to eritromicina,so if the children ill with scarlet fever, is again confronted with the pathogen, this only leads to sore throat.
Moderate and severe form of the disease require adequate and timely antimicrobial therapy and careful care of the child and follow-up activities to strengthen its immunity, for example, stay in the resort and a course of multivitamins.
Streptococcus in pregnant womenOne of the reasons why future mother should be very scrupulous in matters of personal hygiene Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, which can easily penetrate in a sexual way at the wrong wipe away, long wearing underwear, the use of contaminated personal hygiene, you touch genitals with dirty hands and unprotected sex. Of course, strep is normally present in the microflora of the vagina, but the pregnant woman's body is weakened and the natural defense mechanisms may not be enough for containment.
Rate the content of conditionally pathogenic streptococci the hit from the vagina of pregnant women — less than 104 CFU/ml.
The greatest value in the development ofpathology of pregnancy have the following streptococci:
Streptococcus pyogenes causes sore throat, pyoderma, cystitis, endometritis, vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, glomerulonephritis, puerperal sepsisand intrauterine infection of the fetus with all its consequences;
Streptococcus agalactiae also can cause endometritis and the inflammatory diseases of the urinary organs of the mother, the newborn and cause meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia and neurological disorders.
If in a smear of a pregnant woman revealed a dangerous concentration of streptococci, is the local sanitation using antibacterial suppositories. And with a full-scale streptococcal infections such as tonsillitis, the situation is much worse, as most antibiotics, to which sensitive Streptococcus during pregnancy is strictly contraindicated. The conclusion is simple: expectant mothers need to carefully take care of their health.
Complications and consequences of Streptococcus
Streptococcal infection can give the following complications:
- Purulent otitis media;
Severe form of Allergy;
- Rheumatoid arthritis;
- Chronic lymphadenitis;
- Inflammation of the cardiac membranes – endocarditis, myocarditis, pericarditis;
Pulpitis – inflammation of the contents of the teeth;
- Toxic shock syndrome;
- Acute rheumatic fever;
The mechanism of development of complications of streptococcal infections is not fully understood, however, scientists believe that the reason the phenomenon of cross-immunity when antibodies produced to fight the strep, turn on the body's own cells, modified by the pathogen.
Tonsillitis and pharyngitis complicated by acute rheumatic fever is about 3% of cases. Crucial in preventing the terrible consequences of streptococcal infections is a timely and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Earlier, when in the Arsenal of doctors there were not so many powerful and safe antibiotics, acute respiratory infections were frequent and were the cause of death of young and healthy people from the common cold.
Acute glomerulonephritis, ie, an autoimmune inflammation of the kidneys develops in about 10% of patients after 2-3 weeks after suffering a "on his feet", untreatedstreptococcal infection. Children suffer from glomerulonephritis are more likely than adults, but they have this disease is milder and usually does not cause fatal consequences.
The most dangerous to life and health are autoimmune destruction of the heart muscle, connective tissue and joints. Endocarditis sometimes goes into heart disease and cause severe forms of heart failure. Rheumatoid arthritis –an incurable disease that gradually immobilizes the person and leads to death from suffocation. Fortunately, such formidable complications are less than 1% of cases transferred streptococcal infections.
Diagnosis of StreptococcusFor the diagnosis of streptococcal infections used blood, urine, sputum, nasal mucus, scrapings from the skin (if erysipelatous diseases) and from the mucous membrane of the pharynx (pharyngitis and tonsillitis), as well as swabs from the vagina or urethra in diseases of the urogenital area.
The most common methods for diagnosis of Streptococcus following:
- Technician using a sterile cotton swab takes a smear from the surface of the throat, places the material in blood agar and can withstand a day in a closed flask at 37°C, then evaluates the result with a microscope, selects a bacteria colony with hemolysis and peresevat it in blood sugar or broth. There streptococci in three days give a pronounced near-bottom and near-wall growth, and the color and characteristic appearance of the colonies can be concluded about the serogroup of the pathogen and to find a suitable antibiotic;
- If there is a suspicion of sepsis, the patient take 5 ml of blood and inoculated into sugar broth with thioglycol. The material is incubated at 37°SV for eight days, twice preseva it in blood agar on the fourth and on the eighth day. In a healthy person the blood is sterile, and the patient will be observed for growth of bacterial colonies, the nature of which it is possible to conclude that the strain of the pathogen;
- The method of serological diagnosis to determine the presence in the patient's blood of antibodies to the Streptococcus, as well as their number, and thus confirm or refute the diagnosis;
- The reaction latex-agglutination and ELISA are methods of Express-diagnostics of streptococcal infections in the blood;
- Differential diagnosis is necessary in order to differentiate streptococcal infection from a very similar, staph.
Streptococci andstaphylococci cause a person of the same diseases: angina, pharyngitis, dermatitis, otitis, sepsis. The only difference is in the speed of development, the brightness of the symptoms and severity of disease.
For example, a sore throat, caused by Streptococcus, it is much more contagious, manifested a very strong pain, often passes into the purulent form, and causes complications. But Staphylococcus aureus is difficult readjustment and constantly leads to reinfection of the patient.
Answers to important questions about Streptococcus
Forewarned is forearmed. That's why most people primarily trying to understand how dangerous in practice one or the other bacterium, as to protect themselves from infection and what to do if you encounter a pathogen. Will try to thoroughly answer the most common questions about strep.
How is strep infection?
The source of infection is almost always a sick person and his / her belongings: dishes, tooth brush, towel, handkerchief. From asymptomatic carrier to pick up the bacteria almost impossible.
Streptococcus is transmitted in the following ways:
To cause streptococcal infection of the genitals can be on its own, failure to observe elementary rules of personal hygiene. But the most dangerous from the point of view of infection are patients with tonsillitis or pharyngitis, the people with whom you stand while talking, coughing and sneezing. The second place you can put dirty or stale food, which bring the body Streptococcus, and cause dyspepsia and food poisoning.
There are factors that greatly increase the likelihood of streptococcal infections:
- Endocrine pathology;
Immune diseases, such as HIV;
Streptococcal infections are highly seasonal: this bacteria literally goes behind the virus and spreads among humans in late autumn and early winter, just in time for the wave of universal incidence of acute respiratory infections and influenza.Worst of all, a Streptococcus complicates the course of colds, but if the doctor is not diagnosed, then antibiotics he won't assign, because the viruses indifferent to them. That's why in severe intoxication and persistent period of cold is necessary to pass tests.
What distinguishes staphylococci from streptococci?Staphylococcus is a spherical gram-positive anaerobic bacterium with a diameter of 0.5-1 µm. It has no organs of motion, does not produce spores. Some strains of staph are combined in capsule form or L-form, i.e., fully or partially lose the cell wall, but retain the ability to divide. Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic microbe, that is, it causes disease only under certain conditions, and all the while, just present in the body, does not prove itself. Surprisingly, all of these symptoms are typical of strep. The same form and diameter, the same class of bacteria.
There are only a few grounds on which to distinguish staph from strep:
- Staphylococci are grouped irregular shapes in the form of grape bunches, rarely coalesce in pairs, or stay alone. And streptococci always form pairs or lined up in the correct sequence;
- Staphylococcus is rarely a capsule, but almost all streptococci strains are capsuled with shells of hyaluronic acid;
- Staphylococci rarely go into L-shape, but the streptococci make this very easy;
- Aureus never becomes the cause of epidemiological outbreaks, and diseases caused by it develop only on the background of reduced immunity. The Streptococcus, on the contrary, highly contagious, and is often the cause of seasonal epidemics of colds.
Beta-hemolytic's Streptococcus pyogenes. causing 80% of all pharyngitis and sore throats, the remaining 20% of the diseases of the oropharynx are caused by either Staphylococcus aureus, or a combination of both bacteria.
Strep throat, what to do?
If you have just found the streptococci in the smear from the throat, do not need to do anything. Do not treat test results, and specific disease. Any person, at least once suffered from strep throat or a sore throat, on the mucous membrane of the throat there is almost certainly a Streptococcus, but while the immune system is at the proper level, you are in no danger.
As we mentioned above, strep refers to pathogenic microorganisms, that is,is an integral part of a healthy microflora. A healthy microflora is not one in which there is only the "good"bacteria, and one where they are in equilibrium. And if the person Streptococcus is the"bad"bacteria, you should not forget that it can be bad for some other members of the pathogenic flora and prevent them from reproducing. The enemy of my enemy is my friend.
The second reason why don't need to touch the Streptococcus found in the throat, but does not cause disease, lies in the effect of adaptation to antibiotics. Attempts to inflict on contagion"preemptive strike" mean that the bacteria is not completely disappear, but only adapt to antibiotics, mutate and pass on to their offspring genetic information about the enemy. And then, when you see a really good reason for taking antibiotics, medication may be useless.
In a smear from the nose and throat of healthy person may show the following streptococci:
- Streptococcus mutans;
- Streptococcus pyogenes;
- Streptococcus pneumoniae.
With any of these types of bacteria can and should peacefully coexist. Even the dissolving lozenges for sore throat, in the absence or spraying anti-bacterial sprays will bring instead use great harm, not to mention an oral antibiotic pills. Such preventive measures you along with the strep will kill another unknown person, will destroy the entire flora of the throat and will force your body to build it again. And no one knows what happens. So if strep is present just in your throat, do unto him, as in the famous saying: "do not touch until tiho".
What does the presence of streptococci in a smear from the vagina?
In the vagina of healthy women can live to be a hundred different types of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa parasites and fungi. And almost every patient of a gynecologist smears streptococci. But this is not cause for alarm, until the balance of the vaginal flora is not disturbed.
From 95% to 98% of all microorganisms living in the female genital tract should be Doderlein Bacillus and conditionally pathogenic flora (streptococci, staphylococci, Candida) must not be more than 5%.
Remembering this rule, a qualified doctor will never prescribe the patient antibiotics or topically or orally, if you just see it in the smear streptococci. To invade microbial balance of healthy genitals is unwise for the same reason as in the case of throat: if the existing background is not cause inflammation, you don't need itcorrect.
The mere presence of streptococci in a smear from the vagina may indicate the following processes:
- The peaceful coexistence of all members of the microflora.
- A sexually transmitted infection.
If streptococci in smear very little, and sticks of Doderlein on the contrary, much of what we are talking about the first option. If streptococci are more than sticks of Doderlein, but the number of cells in field of view does not exceed 50 pieces, we are talking about the second option, that is, the dysbiosis of the vagina. Well, if a lot of white blood cells, then the diagnosis "bacterial vaginosis", which is specified depending on the type of main exciter. It can be not only streptococci but also Staphylococcus aureus, Gardnerella (gardnerellosis), Trichomonas (trichomoniasis), Candida (candidiasis), Mycoplasma (mycoplasmosis), Ureaplasma (ureaplasmosis), chlamydia (chlamydia) and many other microorganisms.
Thus, the treatment of Streptococcus in the vagina, like any other eradication of the pathogen is only possible in case, if the amount of smear disproportionately high and accompanied by a pronounced leukocytosis. All of these STDs have a very vivid symptoms and smear is necessary in order to identify the culprit and find a suitable antibiotic.
Treatment of strepTreatment of streptococcal infections is engaged in the specialist, in whose sphere of responsibility is the source of inflammation: catarrhal zabolevaniia therapist, scarlet fever – pediatrician, dermatitis and face, dermatologist, genitourinary infection, a gynecologist and a urologist, and so on. Most of kucevalov prescribe antibiotics from group of semisynthetic penicillins, but if they are allergic, have resorted to macrolides, cephalosporins or lincosamides.
To treat streptococcal infections the following antibiotics are used:
- Benzylpenicillin – injectable, 4-6 times a day;
- Dentists – for adults, 750 mg, and children 375 mg twice a day;
- Amoxicillin (flemoksin soljutab) and Augumentin (Amoxiclav) in the same dosage;
- Azithromycin (Sumamed, Azithral) – adult 500 mg once on the first day, then 250 mg everydaily, children dosage is calculated on 12 mg per kg weight;
- Cefuroxime – injection 30 mg per kg weight, twice a day, oral, 250-500 mg twice a day;
- Ceftazidime (Fortum) – injection once a day 100 – 150 mg per kg weight;
- Ceftriaxone injection once daily 20 – 80 mg per kg weight;
- Cefotaxime – injection once a day for 50 – 100 mg per kg of weight, only when the absence of effect of other antibiotics;
- Cefixime (Suprax) oral, 400 mg once a day;
- Josamycin – oral once a day for 40 – 50 mg per kg weight;
- Midecamycin (Macropen) — personalnote times a day, 40 to 50 mg per kg weight;
- Clarithromycin – oral once a day for 6 to 8 mg per kg weight;
- The roxithromycin is orally administered to 6 to 8 mg per kg weight;
- Spiramycin (Rovamycin) oral, twice a day 100 U per kg of body weight;
- Erythromycin – peroralnom times a day, 50 mg per kg of weight.
The standard treatment of streptococcal infection takes 7-10 days. It is important not to stop taking the drug immediately after improve health, prevent admissions and not to change the dosage. All this causes multiple relapses and significantly increases the risk of complications. In addition to intramuscular, intravenous, or oral antibiotics in the treatment of Streptococcus use of local antibacterial agents in the form of aerosols, solutions for gargling and sucking tablets. These preparations significantly speed up the recovery and ease the disease.
The most effective drugs for topical treatment of streptococcal infections of the oropharynx following:
- Bioparox — aerosol-based antibiotics of the last generation Fuzafungina sprayed in the throat and nasal passages;
- Ingalipt – sulfa antibacterial spray for the throat;
- Tonsilgon — local immunostimulator, and antibiotic of plant origin in the form of drops and pills;
- Hexetidine is an antiseptic spray and solution for gargling;
- Chlorhexidine – antiseptic, sold separately in the form of a solution, and also included in many tablets for sore throat (Anti-AnginaSebidin, Faringosept);
- The CPC-free – antiseptic, contains tablets Septolete;
- Dihlorbenzilovy alcohol – antiseptic, contains in megaherts and tablets for sucking (Strepsils, Er, Rien, Lorcet, Suprima LOR Astrasat, Terrasil);
- Iodine is contained in aerosols or solutions for gargling (Iodinol, Vicadin, Yoks, Povidone-iodine).
- I have Immunal, IRS-19, Imunorix, Imudon – local and General Immunostimulants.
If the treatment of streptococcal infection inside taken antibiotics will need a medications to restore the normal microflora of the internal organs:
Treatment of streptococci in young children is carried out with the addition of antihistamines:
- Side effects of the drug.
It is useful prophylactic administration of vitamin C, which strengthens blood vessels, improves immune status and body detoxification. In difficult situations doctors use to treat the special streptococcal bacteriophage is an artificially created virus-eating streptococci. Before applying the bacteriophage test, podselje it in the flask with the blood of a patient and observing efficiency. Virus not cope with all the strains, sometimes you have to resort to the combination eubacteria. In any case, this measure is justified only when the infection cannot be controlled with antibiotics or the patient is allergic to all relevant types of antibacterial drugs.
It is very important to follow the correct mode during the treatment of streptococcal infections. A serious disease with severe intoxication of the organism takes place in bed. That is active movement and the work of the illness are the main prerequisites for the development of serious complications on heart, kidneys and joints. To remove toxins you need a lot of water – up to three litres on a daily basis, both in pure form and in the form of warm medicinal tea, juices and fruit drinks. Warming compresses on the neck and ears can be put only in case if the patient does not have elevated body temperature.
When streptococcal angina is absolutely impossible to try to accelerate the recovery, Stripping purulent plaque and tube from the mucous membrane of the throat with a bandage soaked in iodine or Lugol. This will lead to the penetration of the pathogen deeper and worsen the disease.
In acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis not irritatethe throat is too hot or icy food. Gross food is also unacceptable – it injures the inflamed mucosa. It is best to eat cereal, soups, yogurt, soft curds. If the patient has no appetite, no need to stuff it with food, it will result in only nausea, and vomiting. Digestion –the process in which our body spends a lot of energy. Therefore, during the treatment of streptococcal infections when the digestive organs work so bad, but the body is poisoned by toxins, starvation with copious drinking may be more useful nutrition.
Of course, the most careful care the children need, suffering from streptococcal sore throat or scarlet fever. Baby every hour and a half give a warm lime or chamomile tea, applied to sore eyes and flushed forehead cool gadgets, lubricate itchy and scaly skin baby cream. If the child is able to gargle, should I do it as often as possible with the use of infusion of chamomile or sage. After recovery from a severe form of scarlet fever little patients are advised rest in sanatoriums, prophylactic administration of multivitamins, immunostimulators, Pro - and prebiotics.