Causes, types and prevention of arrhythmias
What is arrhythmia?Arrhythmia is the failure of successive contractions of the heart muscle. In humans, the heart beats at a certain rhythm. This rhythm constitutes a kind of conducting system of the heart. She represents the nodes, bundles of nerve tissue, the accumulation of these nerve cells and fibers situated in the area of the myocardium and there generates all pulses of the heart and pursues them. From this and depends on the rhythm and frequency of heartbeats. When a failure occurs in the activity of even one of education, there is an arrhythmia.
The different types of arrhythmias can sometimes be a failure in the frequency of contraction of the heart, it can lead to an increase in rate (tachycardia) or, on the contrary, decrease of rate (bradycardia), at the same time, the reduction can remain normal. In a healthy person, the frequency of contraction of the heart is about 60-70 beats per minute.
Causes of arrhythmia
The reason for the arrhythmia may be a disorder of the cardiovascular system and arterial hypertension, traumatic brain injury, menopausal changes in the body, diseases of the adrenal glands and the thyroid gland.
Also causes arrhythmia can be a lot of stress, overload – as the nervous and physical abuse of Smoking and alcohol, and toxic and medicinal substances. Failure heart rhythm can be quite a long time does not manifest itself, and may dramatically impair health, it often happens that it is very dangerous for life.
The types of arrhythmias
Sinus tachycardia. Mainly in the field of myocardial – education electro-pulses – is the sinus node. When a person is sick with sinus tachycardia, the frequency of heart muscle contractions sometimes exceeds 90 beats per minute. One feels such a deviation as palpitations. The origin of sinus tachycardia due to the stress, emotional strain, fever colds, not often, but still it can arise from heart disease and all of the above reasons for the appearance of arrhythmias.
Sinus bradycardia. It manifests itself in the form of reducing the frequency of heart contractions, often to 55 beats per minute and even less. Bradycardia may occur in healthy, trained subjects, during rest or sleep. Bradycardia may be accompanied by hypotension, heart disease. As a rule, arises a bradycardia with decreasing thyroid function. Aetiology is felt as discomfort in the heart area, can be sharedweakness and dizziness.
Sinus arrhythmia. Characterized as an irregular alternation of heart attacks. This type of arrhythmia is most often observed in children and adolescents. Sinus arrhythmia may be functionally associated with the breath. During inhalation, heart rate increase and decrease on the exhale. This respiratory arrhythmia affects the wellbeing and usually does not require treatment. When diagnosing this type of arrhythmia you use the breath, during which the arrhythmia disappears.
Extrasystole. This extraordinary contraction of the muscles of the heart. Healthy people may experience rare beats, they can be caused by different diseases and addictions. To be felt in this form of arrhythmia may be as strong aftershocks in the region of the heart muscle or fading.
Paroxysmal tachycardia. Paroxysmal tachycardia this is the correct functioning of the heart, but with frequent heartbeat. Thus, the heart rate can reach 140-240 beats per minute. This type of tachycardia occurs and disappears suddenly. Symptoms: palpitations, sweating, and weakness.
Atrial fibrillation. The disease is called shimmering arrhythmia, is characterized as chaotic contraction of individual muscle fibers, while the atrium is not reduced completely, the ventricles begin to contract irregularly with a frequency of about 100 to 150 beats per minute. When "fluttering" of the Atria, they begin to fall faster, the rate is from 250 to 300 beats per minutes. This condition is often observed in people with disease and heart disease, and thyroid disease and alcoholism.
Symptoms may be absent, the patient may not feel the change in well-being. Treated most often with complaints of a sensation of pounding in the chest, sometimes pain in the heart, and complain of shortness of breath. The main feature shimmering arrhythmia is the lack of heart rate, ie, determined by heart rate when listening to greater than the frequency of the pulse.
A flutter and flicker of the ventricles is considered the most severe violation of rhythm, this can occur from any severe heart disease, due to injury from electricity, and overdose of some drugs.
Symptoms: a sudden cardiac arrest, the pulse was not palpable, loss of consciousness, wheezing, possible convulsions, dilated pupils. The first and immediate assistance to a person in that condition is immediate external chest compressions and artificial respiration.
heart block. In this type of arrhythmia is slowed down and stops the conduction of impulses along all structures of the myocardium. Characterizing a sign of the blockade is the periodic disappearance of the pulse, the blockade may be complete and incomplete. A complete blockade is often accompanied by a decrease in heart rate. From them often fainting and convulsions. A complete transverse blockade can cause cardiac failure and even sudden death.
Diagnosis of arrhythmias
Diagnosis of arrhythmia is the inspection records of the patient, these indicators included: appearance, skin color, palpation of the pulse, defining the boundaries of the heart, measured by heart rate, respiration, electrocardiogram done, which can be used to fairly accurately determine the type of arrhythmia and to find the right method of treatment.
Prevention of arrhythmias
If the arrhythmia is caused by heart disease, is sufficient to cure this disease. In some types of arrhythmia required daily intake of certain medicines, which is able to eliminate the seizures irregular heartbeat.