Atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta
The content of the article:
What is atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta?
Atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta is a chronic disease, in which there is violation of fat metabolism, causing the walls of the main artery of accumulated cholesterol plaques. Over time, they are subjected to promote calcification and clog the lumen of blood highway. It also provides data on the reduction of elasticity of the walls of the aorta.
The aorta is the largest vessel in the human body. It is divided into 2 branches: abdominal and thoracic that supply blood to the organs of the respective cavities.
This vessel has a large diameter and strong, elastic walls. It needs to withstand the pressure of blood that is thrown our heart with great force, so she could reach the farthest corners of the body.
Because the aortic lumen is wide enough, the first symptoms of cholesterol deposits and calcification are felt only in old age when plaques become very tight and significantly compromises blood flow. Certain parts of the tissue begin to suffer from ischemia, which develops due to insufficient blood supply.
The causes of atherosclerosis of the abdominal aortaAfter years of studies of pathology established the following reasons for its development:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Frequent nervous strain;
- Lack of physical activity;
Diseases of the endocrine system, in particular, obesity and diabetes;
- The metabolic disorders;
- Excess fatty foods in the diet;
- Bad habits (alcohol, nicotine);
- The decrease in the protective forces of the organism;
- Infectious diseases in history.
Any of the above reasons leads to abnormal lipid metabolism, and provokes the deposition of cholesterol in the lumen of the vessels,which constantly accumulates and creates plaque. She, in turn, causes insufficient blood supply to the organ fed by the affected vessel, and it provokes ischemia.
If the area of calcification completely closes the lumen of the aorta, it can cause sudden death.
Symptoms of atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta
The clinical picture in atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta depends on the degree of progression and stage of the disease:
Stage 1 – ischemic. Manifested in the form of periodic deficiencies in the transportation of blood to the organs. Heart there are bouts of angina, may develop abdominal pain and alternating lameness;
Stage 2 – tromboembolica. Is characterized by the development of severe complications such as myocardial infarction, stroke, gangrene of the feet. They arise as a result of separation of the thrombus and occlusion of them branches of the aorta of smaller diameter;
- Stage 3 – fibrous. Diagnosed with long-term course of the disease. Is characterized by the replacement of muscle tissue of myocardium by fibrous fibers, which causes cardiosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta of the patient is primarily concerned about the symptoms associated with the abdomen. It happens because the lesions of the mesenteric branches that supply blood to the intestines. In this regard there are complaints of pain around the navel, they are temporary and are periodically shifted. Arise, as a rule, after a meal.
Also, there is flatulence, constipation. In some patients there is a tendency to the diarrhea. The stool is liquid with an unpleasant odor. Due to a malfunction of the intestine impaired absorption of nutrients, causing weight loss.
Very often, atherosclerotic plaques are localized in the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta, it is a place of separation vessel 2 branches. In this case, impaired blood flow in lower extremities and noted the failure of the pelvic organs.
The localization of calcification in the aortic bifurcation marked swelling and redness of the skin of legs and feet. Periodically they start to go numb, become cold, sometimes develop necrotic ulcers. Appears intermittent claudication during walking patients complain of the appearance of pain in the calf muscles, when you stop the pain disappear.
Part of the reproductive system in men is often diagnosed erectile dysfunction andinfertility.
On palpation it is impossible to determine the pulsation of the arteries at the level of the navel, in the popliteal fossa, on the dorsal surface of the feet.
Diagnosis of atherosclerosis of the abdominal aortaTo identify atherosclerosis of the aorta is possible only with comprehensive examination. Since the pathology is more common in the elderly population, should pay special attention to this group of patients. You must start with the medical history and visual examination of the patient.
After that, go to instrumental methods of diagnosis. As a rule, use:
These methods help to study the blood flow in the vessels supplying the heart, lower limbs and brain.
To determine the size of the heart and the degree of enlargement of the aortic arch, used fluorogram. Also for the detection of atherosclerosis at the initial stage can be used ballistocardiogram, EMG of the aorta, the rate of passage of the pulse wave, the clearance factor, the level of cholesterol in the blood, sphygmogram.
Find out more: the 4 most essential (medical) product atherosclerosis
Treatment of atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta
Treatment of atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta requires a comprehensive approach. Definitely the patient should follow a diet that reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood. Banned the use of fatty meats, bacon, butter, sausages, patisseries, pastries, alcohol, soda, strong coffee and tea.
Of medication use drugs affecting the symptoms. Include such antihypertensives, diuretics, strengthen blood vessels and increases their clearance. Also, the doctor selects the statins – drugs that help blocking the production of cholesterol.
Surgery is to replace the affected area of the aorta prosthesis. Used rarely, only in cases where there is a threat of death of the body.
Atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta – pathology, which may cost human lives. Therefore it is necessary to regularly conduct the checks in a timely manner and to seek assistance in the event of relevant symptoms.