Causes and symptoms of Lyme disease
What is Lyme disease?
Lyme disease is a serious infectious disease that causes a lot of questions unlike other infectious diseases. The reasons for this popularity are many symptoms, different opinions of specialists about diagnosis, treatment and little awareness for this disease.
The causative agent of Lyme disease is the bacterium Borrelia. Borrelii often directly multiply in the gut of ticks and excreted through their feces. The infection occurs not only because of the tick bite, but if you crush it with your fingers on the human skin. Particularly dangerous for this kind of infection is summer, when it becomes active special Ixodes tick.
Causes of borreliosis
Causes of Lyme disease are bacteria – spirochetes, which are thin and elongated, spiral cells. Lyme disease is an infectious disease in which the causative agent gets into the human body due to the bite of an infected tick. The disease usually begins to appear about 7-14 days after the bite. Thus severe lesions of the skin, Central nervous system, heart and blood vessels, and musculoskeletal system.
The disease can be transmitted directly via the bite of an infected tick and the tick when feces gets on the skin and rubbed at scratching in the affected skin. You can become infected and damage the tick when it is deleted, when a portion of the insect remains in the wound. In nature, ticks can infect animals that become carriers of the infection. Therefore, for preventing infections from Pets milk should be boiled.
Especially dangerous for the infected period is a period from late spring until early autumn. During this period, mites are particularly active. It is worth remembering that an infected tick, the patient is not infectious to other people around him.
The symptoms of borreliosis
The bite is quite noticeable blush, smudge over time significantly increases, turns bright red, there is swelling in the affected area. The size of the redness range in diameter from 1 to 60 see the bite often itches, hurts, swells, there is a significant rise in temperature, contraction, and sensitivity is disturbed. Sometimes a complete lack of the typical Lyme disease skin reactions.
Intoxication usually manifests inhead pain, weakness, fever, undulating pain in the muscle tissue, aches and pains in the joints. There is a dry cough, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes near the affected area. A victim may experience nausea and retching. When these symptoms are in most cases likely a full recovery with proper antibacterial treatment.
If time does not begin treatment, it often comes second dangerous phase of the disease. After some time (from 2-3 weeks to several months), the infection enters the bloodstream and gets into different bodies. One of the consequences of the second stage of the disease is the Central nervous system, namely, disturbed sensitivity, reflexes are lost, weakened voluntary movements (running, walking, various movements, which regulates the brain).
Complications of the second stage can cause meningitis, a serious disruption of the nerve cells in the brain. For example, greatly change the perception of light, sound and smell, touch. It is difficult to chew, swallow, observed fainting, it is impossible to turn the head, disturbed sleep, it is impossible to focus on anything.
Lyme disease has a negative impact on the cardiovascular system, manifesting itself in violation heart rhythm, conduction within the ventricle, pain. Observed muscle pain, pain in bones, tendons, appear quite large red spots on the body, called erythema with pronounced bright edge and very pale raised, tender center. These symptoms manifest within a few weeks, some may be repeated.
After about 3-6 months (sometimes up to one year) when are two stages of the disease, the stage of chronic infection that affects a specific organ or the whole system. When the CNS is observed fatigue, irritability, or Vice versa –depression.
With the defeat of the musculoskeletal device, a change in the gait, the development of multiple inflammation of the joints (arthritis), change in muscle tone. With the defeat of the skin is observed dermatitis, the appearance of seals and, as a consequence, atrophic acrodermatitis. The disease in the chronic form, is always protracted, with alternating exacerbations and remissions. The average incubation period is 1.5-2 weeks.
Diagnosis of borreliosis
Initially, the analysis of the condition of the victim, established the fact of a tick bite or stay in the forest area during their activity. Then analyzes the complaints and symptoms of the patient,set the timing of the emergence of headaches, the typical redness at the bite location.
To diagnose this form of the disease is possible only in a laboratory, conducting a number of important modern tests for the detection of Borrelia bacteria. Perhaps the infectious disease doctor for a consultation. Not all ticks are infected, so the bite should immediately consult a specialist for accurate removal of the tick and testing for the presence of infection.
Treatment of Lyme disease
If the disease is light (no intoxication, rise in body temperature) it is possible home treatment. Such patients are administered antibiotics, such as tetracycline. All who were bitten by ticks can be observed for two years in the clinic in infectious diseases. If necessary, appointed by the consultation with a rheumatologist, cardiologist, neurologist.
Special attention is paid to pregnant women who were bitten by ticks. Since there are no special means of prevention in the early stages, the question of the preservation of a particular pregnancy is always on an individual basis. The hospital sent seriously ill patients with complications according to clinical indications (rheumatology, neurology, cardiology).
Prescribed antibiotics (Ceftriaxone or penicillin), so that the patient quickly recovered, and the disease has not moved to serious chronic. In the case of advanced disease analgesics, some anti-inflammatory drugs and also prescribed physical therapy to facilitate health of the patient.
During treatment patient is prescribed a tonic, or a group of natural chemicals that increase the body's resistance to harmful effects, as well as vitamins A, b, C. the Treatment lasts depending on the stage of the disease: from two weeks to several months. Ill the person is under the supervision of experts approximately 2 years to determine a definitive diagnosis or a complete recovery of the patient or the transition of the disease into a chronic form.
Complications is a severe form of CNS (inflammation of the spinal cord and brain, paralysis, memory disorder, loss of function of behavior, thinking, coordination of movements), inflammation of the lining of the heart, the iris of the eye, development of dementia, paralysis of peripheral nerves, severe heart arrhythmias, partial or complete loss of vision andhearing, multiple arthritis.
In the bite area may form a benign tumor of the skin. There were cases when due to lesions of the Central nervous system and lesions of the joints , the patient became disabled. It must be remembered that any tick bite should not engage in any self-treatment, you should immediately contact the appropriate medical facility.
Prevention of Lyme disease
Do not forget about the prevention of Lyme disease. When you walk in the woods, Park, trip to the cottage is to wear long sleeves, tuck pants into boots and always wear a hat. Today there is a large selection of all sorts of ointments, aerosols and liquids from insects. It is worth to use them. Favorite places ticks are bushes and high grass, so you should stay away from them.
If the tick is well attached to the skin, carefully remove it with tweezers without damaging. Remove it, unscrewing the crown. In any case it is impossible to drag the tick vertically or pressure. After the tick is removed, the wound should be treated and be sure to wash your hands with soap and water.
Returning from the forest it is necessary carefully to examine ourselves, and also ask the other person to explore themselves, particularly in the area of scalp, the folds of our body. If bite of an infected tick, it is an emergency prophylaxis with antibacterial drugs.
Vaccines for the prevention of Lyme disease, no. The best prevention is to protect yourself from a tick bite, while adhering to simple measures of individual protection. Also should pay attention to the rapid removal of the tick, which sucked because borrelii are in the gut of the tick and not immediately get into the blood. The more time a tick is in the body of the person, the greater very likely to be infected and infection in the blood.
For the prevention of borreliosis in the early days after the bite, use of antibiotics, but it does not guarantee complete protection. They can reduce the risk of infection, but the prescribing and conducting a full examination should contact the experts, as well as to identify the disease at an early stage and prevent complications at later stages.