Causes, signs and treatment of diabetes in children
The content of the article:
Description of the disease
The disease manifests itself at different ages. Found diabetes and newborns. It was congenital, but the frequency of occurrence is low. More common disease among children 6-12 years. Metabolism in the baby's body, including carbohydrate, proceeds much faster than that of an adult. The state has not yet formed the nervous system against this background influences the concentration of sugar in the blood. The younger the child, the more severe the disease.
Diabetes is diagnosed in 1-3% of adults. Children get sick in 0.1-0.3% of cases.
The development of diabetes in children has similarities with the disease in adults. Features of illness in children related to the condition of the pancreas. The sizes are small: at the age of 12 the length is 12 inches, weight about 50 grams. The mechanism of insulin production is getting better to 5 years, so the period from 5-6 to 11-12 years – critical for the manifestation of diabetes.
In medicine it is accepted to divide diabetes mellitus into two types: insulin-dependent diabetes and non-insulin dependent diabetes (1 and 2 respectively). According to statistics, children often reveal diabetes for the first type. That is characterized by low insulin level.
Signs and symptoms of diabetes in childrenParents should pay attention to some peculiarities in the behavior of the child as soon as possible to go to the doctor. Diabetes develops rapidly, if not timely conduct the necessary manipulations can occur diabetic coma.
The main signs of diabetes in children:
- dry mouth and constant desire to drink;
- frequent urination, urine when this sticky;
nausea and vomiting;
- a sharp decline in vision.
- gluttony in food is on the background of weight loss;
- weakness, fatigue and irritability.
The expression of one or more characteristics at a time is grounds for seeking medical attention. He will appointthe necessary tests on the basis of which it is possible to establish an accurate diagnosis.
Symptoms of the disease include typical and atypical manifestations. Atypical symptoms may notice parents. This is a complaint from the child to constant headaches, reduced performance and fatigue.
The main (typical) symptoms of diabetes in children:
- polyuria, or incontinence. Parents of young children can mistake the symptom for the common at an early age bedwetting. It is therefore important to know the first signs of diabetes;
- polydipsia, accompanied by a painful sense of thirst. The child can drink in a day to 10 litres of liquid, and the dry mouth will persist;
- rapid weight loss on the background of increased appetite, or polyphagia;
- the itch on the skin, pustular formations. The skin becomes dry;
appears after urination itching in the genital area;
- increases urine output (more than 2 liters per day). The color of her light. Urine test shows high specific gravity and the content of acetone. Perhaps the appearance of sugar in the urine is normal, it should not be;
- analysis of fasting blood reveals increased blood sugar level more than 5.5 mmol/L.
If you suspect diabetes in a child is extremely important the timely diagnosis and proper treatment.
Causes of diabetes in childrenCauses of diabetes in children are numerous. The main ones are:
- heredity. The disease often occurs in relatives. Parents, with diabetes, with 100% probability will have children who sooner or later will get the same diagnosis. The disease can occur in the neonatal period, and 25 years and in 50. It is necessary to control blood sugar levels in pregnant women because the placenta well it sucks and contributes to the accumulation in the organs and tissues of the fetus;
the viral infection. Modern medical science has proven that rubella, varicella, viral parotitis (mumps) viral hepatitis interfere with the functioning of the pancreas. In such a situation, the mechanism of disease development are presented inway that the cells of the human immune system simply destroy the cells of insulin. But previous infection will lead to development of diabetes only in the case of burdened heredity;
overeating. Increased appetite can cause obesity. This is especially true of easily digestible carbohydrate foods: sugar, chocolate, sweet pastry. As a result of frequent intake of such food increases the load on the pancreas. The gradual depletion of cells with insulin leads to that it ceases to be produced;
- low level of physical activity. Inactivity leads to excess weight. And regular physical activity enhance the activity of cells responsible for insulin production. Accordingly, the level of sugar in the blood is within normal limits;
- constant colds. The immune system, faced with the infection, begins to actively produce antibodies to fight it. If such situations are repeated frequently, the system wears out and the immune system is inhibited. As a result, the antibodies, even if there is no virus-the goals continue to develop, destroying its own cells. A failure occurs in the pancreas, whereby insulin production decreases.
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Treatment of diabetes in children
Presently medicine has not found a method that could completely cure the child from diabetes. Therapy aims at normalization of metabolic processes in the body for a long time. Monitoring the patient's condition by the parents (or yourself, depending on the age of the child).
Competent treatment, the absence of complications and long-term normal state of the child allows to predict favorable conditions for life and future employment.
Modern medical science is working in the field of treatment of diabetes in several ways:
- developed universal and painless ways to introduce insulin into a child's body;
- explore ways to transplant pancreatic cells responsible for insulin secretion;
- tested methods and medicines, the task of which is the normalization of altered immunological apparatus of the child.
The treatment of diabetes deals with the endocrinologist.
The initial stage of the disease can be cured inhospital.
The following stages of diabetes require clinical examination
In children the treatment begins with the selection of optimal diets agreed with the doctor and correctable depending on the severity of the disease. Requires adherence to diet, because the child receives during the day several drugs. Their reception depends on the time of the meal. The treatment regimen must be strictly adhered to, otherwise the efficiency of medicines will be greatly reduced.
Caloric intake is calculated in the following ratio: - Breakfast – 30%, lunch – 40%, afternoon snack 10%, dinner – 20%. Special attention requires the calculation of carbohydrate foods. The total amount per day should not exceed 400 grams.
Drug treatment involves the use of insulin and courses angioprotectors. Auxiliary means are vitamin, hepatotropic and cholagogue.
The use of insulin
The insulin used in the treatment of children with diabetes, short-term acts. Have this property of drugs, protofan and aktropid. The composition is administered subcutaneously using a special pen. It is comfortable and allows the child to learn at a specific time to administer the drug without assistance.
Transplantation of the pancreas
In particularly difficult cases, use a transplant of the pancreas. Conduct or complete replacement of the body or its parts. But there is a danger of rejection manifestation of immune reactions to a foreign body and the development of complications of pancreatitis. Doctors see promising transplantation of embryonic pancreas, its structure reduces the risk of adverse reactions.
Experiments on the transplantation of b-cells of the islets of Langerhans, which used the b-cells of rabbits and pigs, proved to be short-term help. Injected into the portal vein of the slurry, allowed patients with diabetes to go without insulin for less than a year.
Prevention of diabetes in childrenChildren from the first days of life, located on artificial feeding, are more at risk to fall ill with diabetes. Formulas contain cow's milk protein that inhibits the activity of the pancreas. Breast milkthe first preventive method, which will reduce the likelihood of getting a disease. Feeding to a year or more will strengthen the child's immune system and protect against infectious diseases that can trigger the development of diabetes.
In the case of older children need to follow the diet, its composition and mode of appointment. The diet should be balanced and varied to exclude a large number of fats and carbohydrates. Necessarily the consumption of fruits and vegetables.
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Preventive actions are reduced to the definition of risk groups: the presence of the family patients with diabetes, metabolic disorders, and obesity. Children with these signs are put on to an endocrinologist and undergo examination twice a year. If the diagnosis is established, are assigned a clinical supervision and monthly examination of her treating physician with the purpose of correction treatment programs, timely identification of periods of exacerbation and prevention of severe complications in the disease course.
The frequency and methods of surveys is determined depending on the stage of the disease.
Patients with diabetes undergo an annual examination by specialists: ophthalmologist, cardiologist, neurologist, nephrologist, surgeon, and others. Mandatory studies are electrocardiogram, urinalysis and those activities that will help in the early stages to identify violations of organs and systems
Complete cure of diabetes impossible. Proper and timely treatment will achieve remission, and the child will be able to lead a normal lifestyle and developing in line with age.