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Causes, signs and symptoms of gastritis of the stomach


Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach is one of the common diseases of man. About 80-90 % of people throughout life, had at least one episode of this illness. In old age, 70-90% of people suffer from various forms of gastritis. The chronic form of gastritis may develop into peptic ulcer disease, cancer of the stomach.

What is gastritis?

Gastritis is an inflammation of the mucous layer of the stomach, leading to dysfunction of this organ. If you experience gastritis food becomes hard to digest, causing fatigue and lack of energy. Gastritis, like most diseases, can be acute and chronic. In addition, there are gastritis with low, normal and high acidity of the stomach.

Currently, gastritis can be called disease of the century. It affects both adults and children. And according to health statistics, in Russia about 50 % of the population has gastritis in any form.

Gastritis characterized by a variety of external and internal causes that trigger the development of pathology. Clinically, it occurs in the form of inflammation (acute or chronic). Acute inflammation runs a short time. Damage to the mucous membranes of the stomach concentrated acids, alkalis and other chemicals dangerous to fatal.

Long-term (chronic) illness occurring reduces the quality of life and is manifested in the form of pain, and:

The chronic form dangerous atrophy of the gastric mucosa. As a result, glands of the stomach cease to function normally. In place of healthy cells formed atypicalcells. The imbalance of the process of self-healing cells of the gastric mucosa is one of the causes of ulcers and cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.

The stomach is the most vulnerable section of the digestive system. It takes at least three complex process of digestion: mechanical mixing of a food coma, chemical breakdown of food and absorption of nutrients.

Most often damaged the inner wall of the stomach mucosa, where is the development of two mutually exclusive components of digestion – gastric juice and protective mucus.

Digestion in the stomach is finely tuned biochemical process of the body. This is confirmed by the normal acidic pH environment of gastric juice (its main component – hydrochloric acid), but also the differences of the parameters of acidity in different parts of the world. High acidity (pH 1.0-1.2) observed in the initial section of the stomach, and low (pH of 5.0-6.0) – at the junction of the stomach and thin intestine.

The paradox is that in a healthy person the stomach not only digests itself, but also the gastric juice produced by glands in different parts of the body, has different properties. When the pH environment is neutral in the esophagus and in the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine) is alkaline.

Unpleasant, painful feeling of a person with gastritis – heartburn – in the first place, is the result of acid base balance in one of the departments of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the acid-base balance deviation from the norm in parts of the stomach lies in the pathogenesis of gastritis with low or high acidity.

The gross impact on the process of digestion: food or chemical poisoning, release of bile into the stomach, intestinal infections, regular intake of certain medications, carbonated beverages, alcohol, and other factors negatively affect the gastric mucosa. Proven serious impact of the microbial factor in the development of gastritis.

Short-term extraordinary effects on the digestive process is restricted to clinical manifestations in the form of acute inflammation of the following nature:

  • Catarrhal;
  • Fibrinous;
  • Necrotic;
  • Abscess.

Catarrhal gastritis is associated with a poor diet and light food poisoning. Fibrinous and necrotic gastritis usually caused by poisoning by salts of heavy metals, concentrated acids and alkalis. Phlegmonous gastritis caused by traumaticdamage to the stomach wall.

Prolonged exposure to weakened body ends with the development of chronic pathogenesis, compounded by ulcerative processes in the stomach wall. Gastritis can be harbingers of cancer processes in the gastrointestinal tract.

The variety of manifestations of gastritis of the stomach in humans is evidenced by their complex classification. Detailing clinical symptoms of gastritis essential gastroenterologists in the treatment procedures. In our case, this illustration of different forms of the disease for the formation of the reader a generalized idea about gastritis.

Causes of gastritis can be the germs Helicobacter pylori , etc. In some cases, specific microorganisms provoke approximately 80% of gastritis. Helicobacter is not the only cause of this disease.

Another group of gastritis not associated with microbes, although at certain stages of this relationship can be manifested.

Nemikrobnoy gastritis are divided into several groups:

  • Alcoholic. The disease develops under the influence of regular consumption of strong drinks (alcohol has an alkaline pH) against the background of other numerous factors associated with the General negative influence of large doses of ethyl alcohol on the body;
  • NSAIDs due to gastritis. NSAID is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are used in many diseases as antipyretic, analgesic and antiplatelet drugs. The most famous drugs of this pharmacological group – acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), dipyrone, diclofenac, indomethacin, Ketoprofen, ibuprofen, piroxicam. Uncontrolled use of NSAIDs stimulates the development of gastritis, and then its transformation into gastric ulcer.
  • Post-resection. Such gastritis develops after the forced surgical removal of part of the stomach.
  • Chemically caused gastritis. Develop as a result of accidental or ingestion of chemical substances with corrosive properties against proteins of the mucous membranes of the stomach.
  • Gastritis of unknown origin.

In professional medicine, there are also other classifications of gastritis, including the type of distribution of pathogenesis:

  • Autoimmune gastritis (type A);
  • Exogenous gastritis (type b) provoked by Helicobacter pylori;
  • Mixed gastritis (type A+b);
  • Gastritis (type C), provoked by NSAIDs, or chemical irritants in the bile;
  • Special formsgastritis;
  • Gastritis against the background of lowering and raising secretion of hydrochloric acid;
  • Other forms of morphological and functional manifestations of gastritis.

Their differentiation involves the use of sophisticated medical laboratory and instrumental methods at the stage of diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, the description of gastritis, having approximately the same clinical symptoms, but different underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis for a wide range of readers is of no interest.

Discuss in detail on the main signs and symptoms of gastritis, which can serve as the basis for treatment of a person in a medical institution for help.

Signs and symptoms of gastritis of the stomach

Gastritis different variety of signs, but can occur without pronounced manifestations. The most characteristic symptom is pain in the solar plexus, worse after taking certain foods, liquids and drugs, especially with increased aggressiveness to the gastric mucous membrane. Sometimes the pain is worse between meals. Gastritis contraindicated spicy foods, alcohol, sodas and other products, the use of which leads to acute gastritis.

Important, but less than constant symptoms of gastritis are heartburn, vomiting and belching. The disease is sometimes manifested by bloating and frequent discharge of gases. The appearance of two or more of these symptoms on the background of abdominal pain is reason to suspect gastritis.

Disease indicates the reception shortly before the attack of pain spicy food, pharmaceuticals and corrosive liquids.

Much more difficult to identify the symptoms of chronic gastritis. For a long time the symptoms of the disease are limited to occasional chair, a touch on the tongue, fatigue, rumbling and shimmering in the stomach between meals, flatulence, recurring diarrhea or constipation.

Gastritis in the chronic form usually has no significant effect on the clinical condition of the patient, with the exception of reducing the quality of life. Mild chronic gastritis is characterized by constipation and diarrhea. In severe form, in addition to these, frequent discharge of intestinal gas, anemia, drowsiness, cold sweats, increased motility, bad breath.

Symptoms at elevatedacidity

The most common symptoms of gastritis with high acidity, in addition to General symptoms (vomiting, nausea):

  • Prolonged pain in the solar plexus, disappearing after a meal;
  • Frequent diarrhea;
  • Heartburn after eating acidic food;
  • Frequent urge to discharge gases from a mouth – burp.

Symptoms, with low acidity

The most common symptoms of gastritis with reduced or zero acidity:

  • A persistent bad taste in the mouth;
  • Heaviness in the stomach after eating;
  • "Burp "rotten eggs";
  • Rumbling;
  • Nausea in the morning;
  • Problems with the regularity of bowel movements;
  • Disgusting breath.

The symptoms of acute gastritis

Relapse of chronic gastritis characterized by a variety of symptoms, the most common symptoms are:

  • Constant or intermittent pain in the solar plexus, which increases immediately after a meal, or Vice versa, during prolonged fasting;
  • Belching air, burning sensation in the sternum, heartburn after eating, metallic taste in the mouth;
  • Nausea, morning vomiting half-digested food with a distinctive sour taste, and sometimes vomiting of bile;
  • Increased salivation, thirst, weakness;
  • Symptoms of dyspepsia (constipation, diarrhea);

  • Dizziness, palpitations, headache.

The symptoms of acute erosive (heavy) forms of gastritis are complemented vomiting with blood clots, sometimes vomiting black vomit. Gastric bleeding during bowel movements is manifested by black stool. Sometimes gastric bleeding may be determined only by laboratory methods. Massive internal bleeding is manifested by pallor skin and mucous membranes and is easily determined by the color of the sclera of the eyes, dizziness, noise in the ears.

Stomach pain gastritis

Gastralgia – pain in the abdominal wall (cavity) is an important symptom of gastritis. Meanwhile, the pain is accompanied by other diseases of the abdominal organs, which are collectively referred to as "acute abdomen." The discomfort manifested in the form of sharp pains and stabbing,crushing, shooting, burning and other types of pain.

Syndrome of acute abdomen – it could be appendicitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, stomach cancer, reflux, obstruction of the bowel and other diseases. Pain in these diseases in one way or another are combined with other symptoms characteristic of gastritis – vomiting, nausea, belching, constipation, diarrhea, change in body temperature.

Pain resembling gastralgia, can be a symptom of myocardial infarction, inflammation of the lining of the heart and lungs, rib fractures. Stomach pain can occur in viral, bacterial and parasitic pathologies in the intestine, specific female problems, nervousness, diabetes.

At home, you can recognize the pain is due to gastritis. The most characteristic of gastritis and differentiating it from other pathologies of acute abdomen are in pain, worse after:

  • Eating, especially spicy and smoked;
  • The use of alcohol or certain medications, particularly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • A long break in eating.

Other options of pain in the stomach in the absence of skills the clinical work and the opportunity to use laboratory and instrumental methods of research can be easily confused with symptoms of other ailments.

Causes of gastritis

Of most interest are the causes of chronic gastritis. There are external and internal factors that provoke the development of disease. Interestingly, some of the people gastritis develop much more slowly and does not have a significant impact on the body. That is, most likely, causes of gastritis are hidden behind many factors and their combinations.

The most significant external causes of gastritis:

  • Effects on the walls of the stomach bacteria Helicobacter pylori, rarely other bacteria and fungi. Approximately 80% of patients with a diagnosis of "gastritis" secrete acid bacteria, which actively penetrate into the wall of the gastric mucosa, secrete specific substances, irritating the mucous membrane, stimulates the local change in the pH of the walls and inflammation. The final answer why some people these bacteria cause significant harm, while others do not, hitherto unknown;

  • Eating disorders. It is established that poor nutrition is a common cause of gastritis. The statement isfaithful as in cases of overeating and malnutrition. You should diversify the diet of plant food, rich in vitamins and fiber, normalizing peristalsis. However, with the development of the initial stages of gastritis should avoid foods containing crude fiber, and fatty, spicy, canned and pickled foods;

  • Alcohol abuse is regarded as a distinct cause of gastritis stomach. Ethanol in small amounts is an essential component of biochemical processes in the body, however, a large amount of alcohol provokes acid-alkaline imbalance in the body. In addition, alcohol in large doses with regular use significantly harms other organs of digestion – liver, pancreas, and the detrimental effect on metabolic processes in the body;

  • Noted that some drugs, widely used in medicine as a prevent blood clotting (antiplatelet), painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs have serious side effect, irritates mucous membrane of the stomach. Gastritis most often the cause of non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, analgin) and glucocorticoid hormones (prednisone). These medication it is recommended to use strictly for medical purpose, fractional, in small doses, after meals;

  • Some researchers have noted impact on the development of gastritis, worm infestation, chronic stress, corrosive chemicals are swallowed accidentally or intentionally.

Main internal (relating to the violation of homeostasis) causes of gastritis:

  • The innate predisposition of the human to digestive diseases;

  • Duodenal reflux – an abnormal throw of bile from the duodenum into the stomach. The bile getting into the stomach, changes pH of the juice irritates the mucous membrane. Initially, inflammation of the antral part of the stomach, and then expands to other it departments;

  • Autoimmune processes, damage to the immune level of the protective properties of the mucosa cells of the stomach. In the result, the cells stop normal functioning, lose their original properties. This phenomenon triggers a cascade of tiny reactions that alter the pH of the juice, and it leads to constant irritation of the stomach wall. Occurs endogenous intoxication and breach of resistance of the mucosa to the corrosive environment of gastric juice;

  • Hormonal and vitamin exchange, a reflex action of the pathogenesis of the neighboring abdominal organs.

Types of gastritis:

With the help of instrumental and functional methods diagnosed with multiple variants of gastritis. However, all are divided into gastritis with:

  • Normal and high acidity;

  • Zero or low acidity.

Symptoms of gastritis with low or high acidity in General, it is possible to distinguish, but the final diagnosis is based on the study of gastric juice, obtained by probing and intragastric pH-metry using introduced into the stomach of special sensors. The latter method is convenient because possible long-term monitoring of indicators of gastric juice. In some cases, the pH of the gastric contents is determined using the indirect method, the study of urine pH.

Gastritis with high acidity

Is characterized by severe pain in the solar plexus or the navel, usually paroxysmal in nature. The pain subsides after taking diet food, increases in the intervals between meals. Pain in the right hypochondrium – evidence of contact with gastric juice in the duodenum. Pathology is characterized by heartburn, morning sickness, rotten belching, borborygmus, diarrhea (constipation often characteristic for gastritis with low acidity), metal flavor in the mouth.

In some cases, the disease is subclinical, with periodic exacerbations after drinking alcohol, medicinal preparations of group NPVS, cardiac glycosides (digitalis), drugs potassium, hormones (prednisone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone). An attack may be provoked by the use of "heavy" food. Type of gastritis is determined using the medical research.

Gastritis with low acidity

Acid in the stomach is involved in the primary cleavage of the coarse fiber foods.

The pH is 6.5-7.0 is the decreased acidity of gastric juice. While reducing the level of acidity is a slowdown in the denaturation and cleavage of proteins, and, as a consequence, intestinal motility. Therefore, along with the pain, important symptoms anatsidnyh gastritis (low acidity) are constipation, halitosis, putrefactive, fermentative processes in the stomach.

Gastritis with low acidity usually manifests by heaviness in the abdomen, rapid saturation after a meal, increased formation of intestinal gas. Insome cases, the disease may be corrected with the digestive enzymes (festal, Gustav). To treat anatsidnyh gastritis can home, it is very simple. As gastric juice has a low properties, it is long to chew food. Thorough grinding of the food coma in the oral cavity and treating it with saliva, navrachana is an effective method of treatment of gastritis.

Acute gastritis

Catarrhal gastritis develops under the influence of aggressive drugs (aspirin, other NSAID) harmful drinks (alcohol, fizzy soft drinks, when consumed frequently) and junk food (fatty, salty, smoked, marinated). Also known acute gastritis on a background of poisoning (salmonellosis and other), and in patients with renal and liver failure. Acute gastritis can be triggered by pathologies not directly linked with the gastrointestinal tract (pneumonia, frostbite). This is due to the accumulation of oxidized products in severe inflammation of the lungsthat causes inflammation of the stomach wall. Describe acute gastritis on a background of stress.

Fibrinous and necrotic gastritis develops when special or accidental ingestion of strong acids (acetic, hydrochloric, sulfuric) or bases. The disease is accompanied by excruciating pain.

Phlegmonous gastritis is a consequence of intentional or accidental injury to the walls of the stomach (swallowed pins, glass, nails). The disease is manifested by purulent fusion of the stomach wall.

The symptoms of catarrhal (simple) gastritis acute occur 5-8 hours after exposure to crisis factors. Pathogenesis begins with a burning sensation in the epigastric region (synonyms: stomach, solar plexus). Develops pain in the area, nausea, vomiting, metallic taste in the mouth. Toxicoinfection gastritis complemented by increase in body temperature, persistent vomiting and diarrhea. Serious condition is characterized by bloody vomit is corrosive (necrotic) gastritis. Phlegmonous gastritis is manifested by symptoms of peritonitis: tense abdominal wall, shock.

Chronic gastritis

In the initial stages, the disease is no bright symptoms. Periodically manifested increased sensitivity to certain types of food heartburn and bloating. Often occursthe feeling of heaviness with a full stomach, in the language detected by the plaque and a peculiar pattern.

The chronic form of gastritis may develop at any age: from 20 years to old age. The disease is characterized by periods of exacerbation and remission. In the period of acute signs of chronic gastritis does not differ from the symptoms of the acute form of the disease – pain, combined with nausea, sometimes vomiting. Uncomfortable sensations after ingestion of certain foods. This is usually a specific set of products, which you should remember and try to eliminate from the diet or limit the use.

The most dangerous consequence of chronic gastritis is gastric bleeding. It is black faeces, pale mucous membranes and skin of the patient.

Pale mucous membranes may be a symptom of another disease – atrophic gastritis. It occurs on the background of deficiency of vitamin B12. This vitamin is very important for hematopoiesis. Atrophic gastritis can not have other bright signs, except for pallor. The danger of the disease is that it is a harbinger of the development of cancer cells in the epithelium of the stomach. Detection of anemia amid signs of gastritis is a reason to more closely examine the condition.

Topic: diet for gastritis with high and low acidity

The human body has a large-scale defensive resources, so a change in lifestyle, adhering to a diet and correctly assigned to a comprehensive treatment greatly increase the likelihood of cure from any form of gastritis.

How to help yourself at home?

A frequent cause of gastritis is excessive consumption of the following two substances:

  • Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid);
  • Alcohol (ethyl alcohol, ethanol).

Aspirin and its analogs administered cardiologists for long lasting everyday use and is mandatory for prevention of myocardial infarctions and strokes. Tens of thousands of people daily take aspirin as a means of inhibiting the formation of clots in the blood stream, which makes very actual the problem of safe use of NSAIDs.

Drugs acetylsalicylic acid have excellent antiplatelet properties, i.e., prevent the development of clots in blood vessels. Blood clots – the main cause of myocardial infarction andbrain stroke. However, aspirin and other NSAIDs have an unpleasant side effect – they irritate the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. Daily high blood pressure apply these drugs in combination with other medications. Excessive intake of aspirin and its analogues could trigger additional problems for the sick person – gastritis. This is true for all people, the older age group, suffering from hypertension, angina, undergoing or at risk of myocardial infarction.

Alcohol, widely used by certain categories of citizens. In people predisposed to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, even moderate consumption of ethanol can cause exacerbation of gastritis. Alcohol has alkaline properties. Regular neutralization of the acidic environment of the stomach ethanol creates a condition of irritation of the walls.

Meanwhile, there is no reason for exceptions of aspirin and other important medications (iron, potassium, hormones, others) from the list of useful drugs. Carefully read the annotation to medication and take them according to the scheme recommended by your doctor.

In particular, to reduce the side effects of taking aspirin in the following ways:

  • Decrease dose (consult your doctor);
  • Taking the drug before meals;
  • Zapivanie large amounts of water;
  • The transition from aspirin to the modern shell analogues (THROMBOTIC-ass).

When prescribing aspirin and other NSAIDs caution should be exercised in the case of a patient:

  • Erosive and ulcerative diseases in the acute stage;
  • Individual intolerance of drugs acetylsalicylic acid;
  • The tendency to gastrointestinal bleeding;
  • Bronchial asthma;

  • Kidney failure;

  • Pregnancy in women.

Always tell your doctor if you have restrictions on the use of aspirin. This will help the doctor to navigate to find the right dosage of medication, replace it with more appropriate analogs or drugs of a different pharmacological group, correct methods of application, to reduce the frequency of use of aspirin.

In some cases, to reduce the side effects of aspirin and other NSAIDs are prescribed antacids drugs that neutralize gastric acidity.

Irrationalthe use of any drugs may have negative effects and hinder the absorption of other prescribed medicines. Antacids containing aluminium in large doses, cause constipation, potassium-containing medicines – reducing the acidity of the stomach (in some cases this is useful). Potassium is also useful for women during menopause.

In the case of intolerance of certain groups of medicines they are replaced by others. For example, histamine-H2 blockers can become substitutes. This group of drugs (Cimetidine, Ranitidine) are drugs the prescription. These tablets are prescribed as a means of regulating the acidity in the stomach, and, as a consequence, reducing the pain with hyperacidity gastritis.

On topic: the list of effective products and tools for gastritis

As for alcohol, it should abandon its use in the period of acute gastritis and the use of pharmacological agents, have aggressive effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Regular consumption of alcohol is a real threat to the development of gastritis stomach.

Cure for gastritis stomach

In the Arsenal of gastroenterology for the treatment and prevention of gastritis, there are several pharmacological groups of medicines, including:

  • Detoxifying drugs (antidotes) – activated charcoal, smectite, specific antidotes;
  • Antacids (adsorbent) – activated charcoal, alum (almasilate, aluminum phosphate, bismuth subnitrate, bismuth tripotassium dicitrate), hydrotalcite diosmectite, sucralfate;
  • Antiseptics and disinfectants (bismuth subnitrate);
  • Antidiarrheal drugs (diosmectite);
  • Tetracycline antibiotics (doxycycline);
  • Antihistamines (H2 subtype) – famotidine, cimetidine.

orshenin Elena Ivanovna, doctor-gastroenterologist