Causes, symptoms and stages of hypertension
According to many experts in the field of vascular diseases, arterial hypertension is most often caused by circulatory disorders. Heart failure also applies to the list of reasons that provoke the development of hypertension, which for this category of patients is a harbinger of deadly diseases: stroke, heart attack , etc.
Arterial hypertension has a negative impact on the blood vessels of the patient, which in a short time become narrow and damaged. If too powerful the flow of blood vessel walls can burst, causing patients occurs bleeding. Hemorrhagic infarction occurs directly in the body, which houses the lost elasticity and prone to breakage vessels.
The content of the article:
What is hypertension?
Hypertension is a disease whose main symptom is high blood pressure, which is considered the neuro-functional disorders of vascular tone. Most often, this disease occurs in people who are over 40, but lately hypertension significantly younger and diagnosed in people of all ages. Hypertension often suffer equally by both men and women. This disease is one of the main causes of death in people with cardiovascular diseases.
For many decades, scientists from different countries engaged in the study of arterial hypertension. According to studies, the results of which are published in specialized media, hypertensive heart disease is the main causedisability on the planet. Statistics indicate that hypertension is very often the cause of death of patients who too late appealed to a medical facility.
Symptoms of hypertension
The main symptom of hypertension is headache, this is caused by narrowing and spasm of cerebral vessels. Also common symptoms of hypertension is ringing in the ears, flying flies and a veil before the eyes, weakness, sleep disturbances, dizziness, feeling of heaviness in the head, palpitations. These symptoms are observed in early stages of hypertension and are of a neurotic character. At a later stage, hypertension may occur heart failure because of the constant overwork of the heart muscle due to high blood pressure.
Due to the progression of the disease process may decrease visual acuity, vascular lesions of the brain from high blood pressure and this can lead to paralysis, loss of sensitivity of extremities that is due to spasm of blood vessels, hemorrhage, or thrombosis.
In addition, many patients with hypertension experience the following symptoms:
- bleeding from the nose.
- loss of sleep;
- memory impairment;
- redness of the skin when any physical stress;
- strong pressure on the eyes (patients painful to watch on both sides, so they prefer to relax and wait for the next attack in silence with closed eyes);
- rapid heart rate;
- fatigue, etc.
The causes of hypertension and risk factorsThe cause of hypertension are frequent, long-lasting neuro-mental stress, prolonged stress situations. Often a prerequisite for the emergence of hypertension is working, in the performance of which man is in constant emotional stress. Also a high probability of developing hypertension in people who have suffered a concussion. Genetic predisposition can also be one of the causes of hypertension: if the family someone has suffered from this disease the probability of developing hypertension increases severaltime.
One of the main causes of hypertension can be lack of exercise. With age when the elderly start to purchase the atherosclerosis and age-related changes occur vessels, the development of hypertension may exacerbate the problem, causing atherosclerosis to progress. This is quite a dangerous phenomenon, as with a strong spasm of blood vessels, the blood flow to the brain, heart and kidneys becomes critically small. If the blood vessel walls are plaques, with a strong spasm of blood vessels blood can completely stop flow to vital organs and circulating throughout the arteries. In this case, there comes a myocardial infarction or stroke.
In women, the cause of hypertension may be a period of hormonal changes of the body during menopause. Salt, or to be more precise, the sodium contained in it, as well as Smoking, alcohol abuse and excess weight also contribute to increased load on the cardiovascular system.
The causes of hypertension can be attributed to the following factors:
- excess weight because of metabolic disorders, endocrine diseases, sedentary lifestyle, etc. (even a slight deviation from the norm can cause problems with heart and blood vessels, which develop hypertension);
- regular emotional stress, being patient in stressful situations, depression, endured tragedy, etc.;
- strong nervous tension, caused by problems at work, in business;
transferred brain injury (accidents, falls, injuries, hypothermia);
- chronic diseases that have a negative impact on the cardiovascular system (diabetes, gout, rheumatoid arthritis);
- genetic predisposition (according to statistics, children whose parents suffered from hypertension, often inherit these problems and at a young age begin to observe the first symptoms of high pressure);
- age-related changes of blood vessels;
- elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood, in which the walls of blood vessels are formed plaques that interfere with normal circulation (in such vessels often occur spasms that interfere with blood flow to vital organs and can triggera stroke or heart attack);
- menopausal status, in which women find themselves, overcome 40 years old (at the time of significant hormonal changes within the body often begin to progress hidden disease, which may develop hypertension);
- addictions (Smoking, drinking alcohol in large quantities, excessive coffee);
- daily consumption of salt in large quantities;
- the sharp increase of adrenaline in the blood;
- for a long period of time at the computer;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- rare outdoor walks, etc.
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What is hypertensive crises?Hypertensive crisis is a peak manifestation of hypertension. When sharply increased blood pressure, observed all of the above symptoms, but they added nausea, vomiting, sweating and darkening of the eyes. These crises can last from several minutes to several hours. Patients complain of palpitations, they are excited and scared. In this state the cheeks may appear red spots, sometimes during an attack may be profuse urination or loose stools. Hypertensive crises occur more often after a strong emotional surge in women during menopause, in the second half of the day or night.
There is another form of hypertensive crisis, which is more severe, its development is gradual, and over time, it is quite long – can torment a man for four or five hours or even several days. This crisis most often occurs in the later stages of the development of hypertension, and, as a rule, this occurs on a background of chronically high blood pressure. Severe crisis very often accompanied by cerebral symptoms – for example, there may be slurring of speech, a failure in the sensitivity of the extremities. Sometimes the crisis is accompanied by severe heart pain.
Diagnosis of hypertension
To get an accurate diagnosis of the patient, who showed signs of hypertension, a specialist must carry out a setdiagnostic procedures, including laboratory and hardware testing. The goal of diagnosis is determining the stage and degree of hypertension. With these data, the physician will be able to choose the most effective therapy.
Due to the fact that arterial hypertension in the first stage of its development often asymptomatic, most patients come to a medical facility it was too late. In such cases, patients might have to be patient, since hypertension is very difficult to treat and can accompany the person for the rest of life. In order not to lose precious time and to receive timely medical care, you should carefully monitor their health and immediately respond to any alarm signals from the body.
At home each person must by means of a tonometer to measure yourself regularly blood pressure. Optimal performance equal to 120/80, for the elderly the valid value is 130/90. Increase in systolic blood pressure by 5 to 10 points may be caused by changes in climate conditions, too great physical and mental stress. Too big difference between "upper"and"lower" pressure is also a cause for alarm – normally, this figure should not exceed 50 units. If a person will often be observed at the arterial pressure jumps, it is necessary to urgently go to the nearest medical facility and obtain a detailed consultation with narrow specialists.
Stage of hypertension
Modern medicine defines 3 stages of hypertension:
The 1st step is blood pressure 140-159/90-99 mm Hg. article Pressure may return from time to time to the normal levels, and then to rise again;
Stage 2 is blood pressure, which is in the range of 160-179/100-109 mm Hg. station Pressure is often understood and very rarely returns to normal performance;
3rd stage – when the pressure rises to 180 or higher/110 mm Hg. station Pressure is almost constantly high, and its decline may be a sign of a failure of the heart.
Stage 1 hypertension:
In the first stage of hypertension the patient may not feel great changes in your body. Very often the pressure that due to certain reasons rises to levels 140/90 or 160/100, itself returned to normal (120/80).
To detect hypertension at the first stage it is possible only in case, if the patient to independently maintain controlof their blood pressure. A schedule will allow the expert to draw certain conclusions and to make an accurate diagnosis.
Stage 2 hypertension:
In the second stage arterial hypertension is often accompanied by headaches, nausea, lethargy, General weakness, etc.
Patients blood pressure rises and holds for a long time in the range of from 160/100 to 180/110. Independently pressure rarely returns to normal, so patients required medical assistance.
Stage 3 hypertension:
The third stage of hypertension is considered the most dangerous, since it most patients pressure can achieve the performance 180/110 and above. A sudden drop in blood pressure in the 3rd stage of hypertension specialists can be regarded as a sign of failure of the heart and to serve as a pretext for consultation from the cardiologist. Patients begins to emerge clearly symptoms of hypertension, which forces people to seek help in medical institutions.
This category of patients needs prolonged treatment (often in inpatient settings), which provides for the administration of specific medicines and the passage of physiotherapy.
When the disease of hypertension, many patients (especially 2 and stage 3) can occur in hypertensive crises, during which the rapidly increasing pressure.
During such attacks, patients may experience the following symptoms:
Hypertensive crisis may end in a few minutes, and may last several hours. Such patients need emergency medical care.
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How to treat hypertension?In the treatment of hypertension specialist individually selects each patient course of medical therapy.
In most cases, hypertension is assigned to the following medicines:
Thiazide diuretics – are drugs that reduce the level of fluid in the body, and thus the blood pressure;
- Sartan (blockers of receptors of angiotensin II) – modern drugs that are used with the 90-ies, reduce the pressure for 24 hours after a single reception in the morning or evening;
Calcium antagonists – are appointed if there are violations of cardiac activity, arrhythmias, angina or pronounced cerebral atherosclerosis.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors – is able to expand the cavity of blood vessels and arteries (these drugs prevent the development of spasm of blood vessels and facilitate the work of the heart);
Beta-blockers – normalize the heart rhythm (at elevated pressure the heart begins to work at an accelerated pace);
- Blockers alpha-adrenergic receptors, which is able to very gently widen peripheral vessels.
See also: Drugs used in hypertensive crisis
During treatment, patients should maintain a relaxed lifestyle, which does not present any stress or emotional overload. Patients need to spend more time outdoors, it is best to make long walks in the woods, in a Park, at the reservoir. It is imperative to follow a diet, as proper nutrition is the key to successful treatment of hypertension.
The power supply system in hypertension
Such a severe disease like hypertension, doctors advise patients to stick to the diet. First, from the daily diet need to exclude foods and dishes, which in large amounts is "bad" cholesterol and salt.
Patients with hypertension should refrain from the following products:
- fatty meats;
- fried foods;
Fresh baked goods should be replaced with crackers, or eat bread to eat, a few days after baking.
It is recommended to fill your daily diet patients products that saturatethe human body with vitamins, minerals and other nutrients, thus preventing the development of cardiovascular diseases, and it is:
- dairy products;
- diet meats;
rice, buckwheat and other cereals.