Kidney stones in women and men
Kidney stones in men and women can long time can afford to not to say. People often learn of their illness when the first attack of renal colic. Meanwhile, urolithiasis is fraught with certain dangers and requires treatment.
The main reason for the formation of kidney stones is the metabolic in the body, which leads to the formation of insoluble salts. The number of stones and their place of localization can be quite varied.
Urolithiasis is a chronic, prone to frequent relapses. The stones can be discovered in the bladder, in the ureters, not only in the kidneys.
Lead to their education can also external factors, for example, when a person is drinking poor quality water or for a long period of time follows a monotonous diet. In addition, the cause of urolithiasis are often the climatic conditions in which a person lives, for example, too hot climate. Other factors leading to the formation of stones are: stricture of the ureter, intake of certain drugs, hyperparathyroidism, deficiency of vitamins a and D, chronic pyelonephritis and cystitis, anomalies of development of organs of the urinary system. In addition, one should not exclude the transfer factor of the tendency to the development of kidney stones is inherited.
There are several types of stones, their composition depends on what caused the salt deposits:
- In 70% of cases the calcium stones.
- In 15% of infected stones.
- In 12% of cases of uric acid stones.
- In 2-3% of cases stones are cystine stones.
The content of the article:
- Why are kidney stones?
- What are the symptoms of kidney stones?
- The symptoms of other organs
- What can happen if you have a kidney stone?
- What must be done?
- If you have kidney stones – what to do?
- Surgery to remove kidney stones
- Is it possible to recurrence after removal of kidney stones?
- Conclusion: to split, remove or wait?
The reasons for the formation of kidney stones is a failure in metabolism. Especially dangerous fluid and electrolyte imbalances and disruptions in the chemical composition of blood. The metabolic disorders are the cause of the development of many pathologies in humans, including the cause of development of kidney stones. The salt content in the urine increases, which leads to the formation of crystals.
Contribute to failure in metabolism can a variety of factors that will further lead to the formation of stones, among them:
- Regular consumption of water with high salt content. The harder the water that a person drinks, the faster he has kidney stones are formed. A particularly high percentage of the incidence of urolithiasis in areas where the level of hardness of tap water is exceeded. Therefore, people living in such regions, it is necessary to use various methods to alleviate it. With this, you can premanath filters, do not forget about traditional methods of softening water. This can significantly reduce the risks of formation of kidney stones.
- Error in the diet. The use of sour, salty, spicy and fried foods in excess. Spicy, fried and fatty meals contribute to raising the acidity level of urine, which leads to the formation of kidney stones. Also should not eat too much salt and drink plenty of mineral water. If we exclude from the diet all harmful meals, you can minimize the risks of developing not only kidney stones but also many other diseases. Therefore all doctors recommend to follow a proper diet.
- Lack of fluid in the body, Urine becomes more concentrated, the less people drink water. Drinking sufficient fluids contributes to its dilution. In addition, blood becomes less viscous. This will allow the body to get rid of harmful substances and to prevent the occurrence of stones. You have to drink as much fluid as the body requires it. The accepted norm is 2-3 liters of water a day. However, you need to ensure that this does not negatively impact on other systems and organs. First of all it concerns the heart. Therefore, to determine the volume of water consumed in a day, you need individually.
- A sedentary lifestyle. Physical inactivity is a problem of modern society. From a lack of physical activity is developing many diseases, because the blood is unable to circulate normally in the body, and therefore, all the organs suffer from lack of oxygen and nutrients.
Very exposedthe development of kidney stones bedridden patients. Even more dangerous a sedentary lifestyle. Statistics show that physical inactivity increases the risk of death by 40%.
The less a person moves, the more affected by his musculoskeletal system, and the faster the bone marrow leaches the calcium. As a result, the calcium level in the blood increases and the body tries unsuccessfully to bring it together with urine. In the end, the kidneys begin to form stones.
To prevent the development of kidney stones, you need to lead an active lifestyle, walk more, ride a bike, to stop using the Elevator. Remember – kidney stones are formed in people who don't move at all.
Chronic diseases of the digestive system and the genitourinary system. A urinary tract infection. Threat such diseases of the urinary system: pyelonephritis and cystitis. Often to the formation of kidney stones causes prostatitis and peptic ulcer. However, almost any infection can cause a metabolic disturbance, therefore any inflammatory process should be removed. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle – that's the key that most diseases will pass man party. It is no secret that the disruption of one system, leads to malfunction of the organism as a whole. So, step by step, develop a variety of diseases.
Diseases of the bones, the trauma. In terms of the formation of kidney stones dangerous diseases such as osteomyelitis, osteoporosis and other diseases of the skeletal system. Therefore, it is important to maintain the health of the musculoskeletalapparatus.
Alcoholism, excessive use of diuretics. The diuretics contributes to the fact that the body rapidly loses fluid. This leads to an increase in the concentration of urine, with the subsequent formation of stones. It is therefore important not to deviate from the recommendations of the doctor to comply with the dosage and frequency of diuretics, if they have been assigned. Self-medication diuretics is unacceptable. Alcohol intake is also fraught with peril in terms of the formation of kidney stones. In General, the abuse of alcohol contributes to intoxication.
What are the symptoms of kidney stones?The main symptoms of kidney stones include the following:
Pain in the kidneys. Localized pain in the lumbar region. They can also indicate not only kidney stones, but also on the heart attack kidney, tumor and so on
The attack of renal colic is characterized by abdominal pain that occurs on the left or right side. Pain radiating to to the pubis or the thigh. Renal colic requires immediate assistance to individual.
Blood in the urine. The presence of blood in urine (hematuria) is a terrible symptom. It could indicate a kidney stones, stones in the ureter, pyelonephritis, tumor of kidney and other inflammatory diseases of the urinary system.
Blood in the urine can often be detected independently. Output body fluid is similar to meat slops. Hematuria may develop after injury of the bladder or kidneys, or afterexcessive physical exertion.
Sometimes urine can be painted in red color after ingestion of certain products containing the corresponding pigment. For example, after eating beets or pomegranates. To hematuria is not irrelevant.
The increase in body temperature. This feature, as the increase in body temperature by itself does not indicate the kidney stones. However, if the temperature increases on the background of other symptoms of kidney stones, you need to seek medical help.
The appearance of edema. If you have kidney disease in humans edema always. They are particularly noticeable when waking up. Swollen feet and hands, under eyes there are bags. In the evening they subsided, and by morning again increase. Despite this, people often do not notice or simply ignore this symptom of kidney disease.
Increase in blood pressure. Hypertensionis a reason to complete the examination of the entire urinary tract. Very often abnormalities in the kidneys and adrenal glands lead to spikes in blood pressure.
The appearance of pain during urination. Pain during urination can indicate a kidney stones, cystitis and urethritis. It is necessary to evaluate the color of urine. Normally it is transparent, with a yellowish tinge. If the color of urine changes, this can be a symptom of the disease not only kidney but also liver, blood, or bile ducts.
The change in the volume of urine. Daily volume of urine is reduced to 500 ml (oliguria). This symptom may indicate glomerulonephritis. Furthermore, oliguria is an indication that the person consumes enough fluid or he increased sweating.
Daily urine volume reduced to 50 ml (anuria). Such a symptom may indicate acute renal failure, intoxication with poisons or drugs on renal colic. It is not excluded the appearance of anuria when blockage of the ureter stone.
Daily urine volume increased to 10 l (pollakiuria). This symptom indicates chronic kidney disease, the development of irreversible process in the tissues of the organs. Also pollakiuria is a symptom of diabetes.
Changes in the skin. In kidney disease may indicate the discoloration of the skin. So, on the background of the glomerulonephritis, the skin is dry, pale, with a yellowish tinge. On the kidney pointmultiple subcutaneous hemorrhage.
Deterioration of General health. Man gets tired quickly, he is deteriorating appetite, is weight loss.
The symptoms of other organsDiscomfort in the lumbar region can indicate many diseases. Therefore, it is important to find out the cause of the pain.
Acute appendicitis may manifest with pain in the lumbar region. In addition, in humans, increased body temperature, can join nausea and vomiting. If you experience these symptoms, seek immediate medical help.
- Inflammation of the reproductive system. Lower back pain can occur in inflammatory processes in the genital organs, and urinary system with the reproductive system has a very close relationship.
- Diseases of the organs located in the abdominal cavity can respond to lumbar discomfort. To determine the nature of the pain, you should consult a doctor for a more accurate diagnosis.
- Osteochondrosis of the vertebral column very often leads to the occurrence of pain in the lumbar region. This can be attributed to other pathologies of the locomotor apparatus.
What can happen if you have a kidney stone?If a person has a kidney stone, this condition requires treatment.
When no therapy is not possible may develop the following complications:
In the place where the stone, there is a chronic inflammatory process. Most often it occurs after exposure, after acute respiratory illness and on the background of a General decline of immunity. In the end, joined by diseases such as pyelonephritis, urethritis and cystitis.
In the future, pyelonephritis can be complicated paranephritis, the formation of suppurative abscesses in the kidney or carbuncle. It threatens abscess of the body, destruction of the renal papillae and sepsis. In the end, the person will need urgent surgical intervention, as this condition poses a direct threat to life.
- Perhaps the development of renal colic, which occurs when blockage of the ureter. In addition, blockage of the kidney stonemakes impossible the flow of urine. This can lead to an increase in renal size, hydronephrosis, and further, to the development of renal failure.
- The stones are able to grow. Sometimes they reach such sizes that take up the entire Cup-pelvis-plating system. This, in turn, provokes the appearance of a constant mild pain in the lumbar region with subsequent development of progressive renal failure.
- The presence of stone in the kidney may trigger the development of nephrogenic hypertension, that is, the patient will be elevated blood pressure that cannot be controlled conventional drugs.
Can hurt a kidney stone?
A kidney stone can hurt. Pains are dull in nature, they can occur when blockage of the ureter or pelvis of the kidney. If the background pain the urine becomes muddy colour, in humans, increased body temperature and worsens the General health, it will indicate the accession of infection.
The pain is localized in the lumbar area, may radiate to the back, to the left or right side, in the lower abdomen. Pain can remind yourself during emptying of the bladder. Sometimes, the pain intensified during the shaking, for example, when traveling on public transport, or after exercise.
Pain while kidney stones can be very minor or very intense (renal colic). Sometimes the pain is not bothering the man at all, and he's not even aware of the presence of a kidney stone. The first attack of pain can occur in the type of renal colic.
Renal colic – what is it?Renal colic is an acute pain, which happens on the background of the sudden disorders of urine outflow. Most often renal colic develops when the infringement of the stone in the ureter. The condition is accompanied by increased blood pressure and ischemia of the kidneys.
Renal colic is expressed in cramping pain in the lumbar region. They are distributed to the ureter and below. Urination becomes extremely painful. In parallel, the person has nausea, can join vomiting. The patient is in the excited state. Renal colic requires the provision of immediate medical assistance.
Causes of renal colic. When blockage of the ureter stone dramatically increases the pressure in the renal pelvis, the pelvis is stretched. As in the wall of the pelvis many pain receptors, the pain is usually very strong. When the size of the stone is not greater than 0.5–0.6 cm, the stone can be removed with the urine. If the stone is large, ornarrowed urinary tract or other causes of stone in the urinary tract, preventing the urine to move away, pressure in the renal pelvis long remains high or is increasing constantly, and this can lead to dysfunction and even death of buds.
Whether to dissolve a kidney stone?
A kidney stone can be dissolved, but it will require a specific treatment in combination with a diet. Reliably soluble with litholytic therapy are only uric acid stones.
Oxalate and urate stones can be dissolved with alkaline water. Sometimes small urate stones can be dissolved by going to enhanced drinking regime (for this purpose, suitable normal water).
Can kidney stones raise blood pressure?
Kidney stones can increase the pressure. This condition is called syndrome, secondary arterial hypertension. Most often, the pressure increases when joining complications of urolithiasis, for example, chronic calculous pyelonephritis. In such patients, blood pressure increased in 12-64% of cases. Also, blood pressure always rises in the background of the attack of renal colic.
Can kidney stones come out by themselves?
Solid stones leaving the kidneys through the urethra is extremely rare. Most often, they go along with the urine in the form of sand. The person will experience pain, which intensified when making sudden movements, possibly more frequent urination, fever, change in the composition and color of urine.
If the kidneys will not a grain of sand, and the stone, the patient will occur renal colic, with all its attendant symptoms. When the stone is flat, has an elongated shape, it may of kidney to get into the urethra and start to move on it. However, the ureters have a curved shape, which is a natural obstacle to the movement of even very large stones, so they often get stuck in narrow places. Sometimes stones pass through the ureter, but stop at the exit to the bladder, fully or partially blocking the flow of urine. On the background of violations of passage of urine is needed surgery.
What must be done?Diagnosing kidney stones – a prerequisite that must be completed before beginning treatment. Qualitative survey allows to select optimal therapeutic interventions forparticular patient. During diagnosis it is important to establish, where are the stones and what is their size.
So, for detection of kidney stones will need:
- Undergo ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder. This method has its advantages. For example, when performing x-ray examination, urate stones cannot be found, and on ultrasound they can be clearly seen.
- X-ray examination allows to detect the larger sizes – from 3 cm and more. The photographs will be visible oxalate calculi. Urate stones are not visible to x-rays, since they just let them go through me. X-ray examination of the kidneys is auxiliary, not the main method of detecting stones.
- Lab tests, can detect metabolic abnormalities and to make a conclusion about the chemical composition of the rocks. Analysis of blood and urine is possible to suspect the presence of inflammation in the body.
- To determine the location of the stone and its exact coordinates allows radiopaque excretory urography of the kidneys. To conduct this type of research in the vein injected a special substance that enters the kidney and accumulates in them. Then the patient is examined by radiographic method. The danger of this kind of research is to experience an allergic reaction to the injected drug.
- CT scan of the kidneys. Imaging is one of the most informative methods of research, which can provide a maximum of information about the kidney stones.
If you have kidney stones – what to do?For the treatment of kidney stones is used for both surgical and conservative therapy. To determine the best method of getting rid of kidney stones only in conjunction with a urologist. The tactics of the patient is determined based on their age, location of stone, size of stone, the symptoms of the disease, anatomical and physical characteristics of the person. In addition, it is important to clarify whether the patient is developing renal failure.
The selection of diet. The food takes a patient with kidney stones should not promote the formation of new stones. In addition, employees must obtain enough fluids daily diuresis was not less than 1.5 liters. Although the diet should be varied, should the total amount of food to cut.
Depending on the composition of the stonescan be given the following recommendations:
- When uric acid stones should limit intake of protein in the body to completely abandon the use of coffee, chocolate, spicy and fatty foods. It is impossible to accept alcohol, is also excluded meat, pate, sausage.
- With calcium-oxalate stones should limit consumption of chocolate, milk, cheese, cottage cheese, nuts, strawberries, lettuce, sorrel, spinach. Should not drink strong tea. From fruits fall under the prohibition of all citrus.
- If the patient has calcium phosphate stones, it is impossible to eat cottage cheese, berries, pumpkin, all green vegetables, potatoes and beans. From drinks under the ban gets the milk and alkaline mineral water.
Water strikes for flushing the kidneys. If the result of ultrasound was discovered microlites (small crystals), not the stones, perhaps flushing the kidneys with water. This person will need to drink on an empty stomach 0,5-1 liter water, or a decoction of dried fruit. If there are no medical prohibitions, then repeat this procedure 1 time a week. This method allows to get rid of microliths and to prevent the formation of stones.
Medication. If the stones depart alone, patients are prescribed drugs from the group of terpenes. They have sedative, spasmolytic and bacteriostatic effect.
For dissolving cystine stones can be used the drug Uralit. For getting rid of calcium oxalate stones – the drug is Spilled. When phosphate rock is recommended taking the drug Shed.
The most important factor influencing the course of a kidney stones is the metabolic disorders, so it should be brought back to normal. To reduce the level of uric acid is Allopurinol and Benzbromaron. Perhaps the addition of these drugs citrate mixtures. Also patients prescribe vitamins A and E as powerful antioxidants that normalize the cell membranes of the kidneys. Dose, the multiplicity of reception and the choice of specific drug is selected individually for each patient.
With the development of renal colic, the patient is shown receiving antispasmodics (Drotaverine or Metamizole) and thermal treatments (bathing, overlaying warmer). If antispasmodics are inefficient and the attack of renal colic is prolonged, it requires the introduction of procaine blockade of the spermatic cord or uterine ligaments.
Upon accession of inflammatory processes shown antibiotics. It is important to understand that to get rid of pyelonephritis or other illnesses provoked by kidney stones will not be possible as long as the stone remains in the kidneys.
Learn more aboutmethods of treatment:
Method for remote lithotripsyThe method allows remote lithotripsy to break up stones from 4 mm to 1.5 cm in diameter. It is also used for getting rid of small stones, which are resistant to ongoing conservative therapy.
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be applied for the treatment of patients at any age, as it is a non-invasive method of treatment. Contraindications to the procedure are:
- Body weight greater than 130 kg;
- Aortic aneurysm;
The procedure time takes about 40 minutes. The patient is placed on a special table-lithotripter, then the impact zone suggest camera. He's not touching the body, begins to break up stones. At this time, a person can feel only a slight tingling.
Abroad remote lithotripsy performed in an outpatient setting. Russia decided to hospitalize the patient for up to 3 days. After the procedure the stones begin to excrete from the kidneys. Time of their removal depends on the condition of the human body, from the patient's age, the chemical composition of the stone. It often happens that the sand goes virtually painless. Already a day later kidney patient is fully cleared. In other cases, the stones can go more than a month, the person will experience pain, which flows by type of cystitis.
1-2 days after lithotripsy, you need to come on reception to the urologist. Repeat visits to the doctor is necessary after 30 days. At the same time perform ultrasound examination of the kidneys. Most often, complete removal of stones rather than 1 or 2 treatments.
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Indications for surgery for removal of kidney stones are:
- The expressed painful syndrome.
- Frequent recurrences of pyelonephritis.
- Hydronephrosis of the kidney.
Doctors, when choosing the type of surgical intervention should follow in the least traumatic way. If earlier the only way to remove the stone was open surgery, which often led to the removal of the kidney, the modern technologies allow to avoid it. Open surgery is performed only in the presence of large stones, with increasing renal insufficiency, in case of impossibility of implementation of other treatment methods for various side effects. Also open method and remove the stones with the accession of purulent pyelonephritis.
The types of open surgery on the kidneys:
- Pyelolithotomy. It is performed under the condition of finding a stone in the renal pelvis. Held back, bottom and front pyelolithotomy.
- If the stones are large in size, you will need to contact crushing. Apply a method such as nephrolitholapaxy. In this case the patient is administered anesthesia (spinal or General), and then pierce the skin over the kidney, with bougies expand its interior space and start to break up the stone. Crushed stones by ultrasound, pneumatic devices or laser. The whole procedure is monitored by x-ray and ultrasound.
- Ureterolithotomy. This operation is carried out under condition of finding of stone in the ureter. In modern surgery, this method is rarely used.
When deciding on the method of surgical treatment, it is very important to pay attention to such criteria as:
- The size of the stone;
- Its location in the urinary tract;
- The ability to visualize the stone using x-ray equipment (roentgen or rentgenopozitivnye stone).
With regard to the chemical composition of the stone, he should pay attention when choosing the optimal diet for the patient. This will depend on the set of allowed and forbidden foods included in the menu of the patient. In addition, mineral composition of stone allows you to choose a medication that will contribute to its dissolution.
Is it possible to recurrence after removal of kidney stones?
Recurrence after removal of kidney stones is possible. Therefore, it is important after treatment to adhere to medical recommendations. You should follow a diet to limit consumption of fish and meat dishes. This should be done for the reason that meat and fish contain purines, they cause the production of uric acid, which further leads to the formation of stones.
Another important recommendation is the use of a sufficient amount of liquid. At least a day to drink 1.5 liters of water. This will help to dilute the urine and make it less concentrated. As a result, creating unfavorable environment to start the process of stone formation.
Also the use of phytotherapeutic drugs. They have some a diuretic and antiseptic effect. In addition, patients who have undergone treatment for kidney stones, need 1 every 3-6 months urine tests. Ultrasound of the entire urinary system do 1 every 6 months.
Kidney stones often leads to various diseases of inflammatory nature. During exacerbation kidney stones are not removed. First you need to conduct a TANK-crop microbial flora and to eliminate inflammation.
Inflammation of the kidneys are treated with antibiotics. Only after the elimination of the inflammatory process you can proceed to surgical intervention. The exceptions are emergency operations, they are carried out without prior treatment.
Conclusion: to split, remove or wait?The treatment is determined by the size of the stones, and those disturbances in the body, which they provoked. The stones significantly increase the risk of development of inflammatory processes not only in the kidney but also the ureter and in the bladder. They can trigger the development of pyelonephritis, cystitis, renal failure, heart attack and death kidneys. In the future, the person will need kidney dialysis and organ transplant.
So if the doctor insists on surgery, then abandon it should not be.
The risks of developing kidney stones is increased in the following categories of people:
- Patients with a genetic predisposition;
- Patients with diseases of the digestive system and the genitourinary system;
- Patients with osteoporosis;
- Patients with disorders of the parathyroid glands;
- People who eat a lot of spicy, sour and salty dishes, asalso protein products;
- The people who adhere to a monotonous diet;
- People who drink poor quality hard water containing large amounts of salt.
The operation of the open type in the kidney stones are rare, for example, on the background of narrowing of the ureter or in violation of passage of urine.
Often use such treatments as:
- Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. With this method, remove stones, up to 1.5 cm. The procedure is performed using special equipment. While invasive intervention in the body occurs.
- Transurethral, contact or percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy. These methods are applicable when the stones are large or when a lot of them. For the implementation of each procedure will require the injection of anesthesia to the patient. Any operation is carried out under ultrasound and x-rays. Punctures in the skin and crushing of stones made by using special tubes. Crushed stone with laser, ultrasound, impulse or Pneumatics. This procedure allows not only destroy stones, but also to remove their residues from the kidneys.
Thanks to modern technology, the recovery period after surgery decreased significantly, when compared with open surgical techniques conducted previously. However, the choice of treatment must be performed by a specialist.
To suspect kidney stones, you on grounds such as:
- Discomfort and pain in the lumbar region;
- Pain in lower abdomen radiating to groin and genitals;
- The presence of impurities of blood in the urine;
- Frequent urination, painful urination, cloudy urine;
- The appearance of edema;
- The increase in body temperature.