What is pancreatitis? What to do when you attack?
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What is pancreatitis?
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. The cause of pancreatitis is overlapping duct cancer stones from the gallbladder, a tumor or a cyst. In such a situation fails the flow of digestive juices with enzymes in the small intestine. These pancreatic enzymes accumulate over time and begin to affect the fabric of the gland. And the result is that the pancreas digests itself.
Such enzymes can destroy not only all of the gland tissue, but also nearby blood vessels and other organs. The result can be death.
Causes of pancreatitisOn gland also influenced by diet and lifestyle in General. To carbohydrates, fats, and proteins could be digested by the body, it must contain certain enzymes, e.g. lipase for digestion of fats, trypsin to digest proteins. When a person enters in your diet products, which are dominated by harmful substances, or when he abuses alcohol, or when therapy certain medications – the pancreas is disturbed. Such a slowdown leads to the fact that the authority and its ducts is the stagnation of the juice. The process of digestion fails, in the end, the person begins to suffer from inflammation of the glands of acute pancreatitis. It is able to provoke poisoning, overeating, trauma.
Separately inflammation of the pancreas is extremely rare, almost always in this pathological process involved other bodies of digestion. The complexity of the diagnosis of her condition is that she is located deep in the body and is small.
Scientists have identified several factors leading to the development of pancreatitis:
- Diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tract. This is the most common cause of inflammation. The fact that when formed, obstruction biliary tract and when casting bile, the pancreas gives of pathological chemical reaction. It accumulates substances that stimulate theenzymes produced against tissues of the body. There is a gradual destruction of blood vessels, tissues, glands very swollen, it appears hemorrhage. According to reports, the pancreatitis because of a disruption of the gallbladder and his ways develops in 70% of cases (if we exclude the alcoholic nature of the disease). Other causes of inflammation of the gland scientists refer to idiopathic, that is, those that cannot be established.
- Diseases of the duodenum and stomach. The release of intestinal contents into the ducts of the glands can occur in case of insufficiency of the sphincter of Oddi. This occurs in diseases such as: gastritis and ulcers, decrease of motor activity of the duodenum or inflammation.
- Intoxication of various etiologies. Poisoning by alcohol, chemical substances, food, and even the infection by worms, - all of which can lead to the formation of pancreatitis. In addition, the detrimental impact of regular consumption of fruits and vegetables with pesticides, the inclusion in the menu of foods rich in chemical additives.
- High blood pressure, atherosclerosis, the period of carrying a child, diabetes. Any disease that leads to disruption of blood flow, causing it to fail and in the pancreas. The net result is a violation of her power and the formation of inflammation. During pregnancy lack of blood circulation caused due to pressure of uterus on blood vessels organs, contributing to the development of ischemia. Therefore, all pregnant women are most at risk for the development of pancreatitis.
- Overeating. If the body is disturbed the balance of fat metabolism, the gland begins to produce enzymes in greater quantity. If fat metabolism disorders are becoming chronic, the risk of developing inflammation of the body increases significantly. It is especially dangerous to include in the menu of fried and fatty foods.
- Therapy and acceptance is for this reason that certain drugs. A negative effect on the pancreas is capable of the following drugs: Metronidazole, Furosemide, Azathioprine, Tetracycline, Estrogens, Corticosteroids, cholinesterase Inhibitors, Thiazide diuretics, Sulfonamides, and NSAIDs.
- Organ injury. Lead to inflammation able surgery the duodenum and gall bladder, blunt trauma to the abdomen, his injuries.
Allergies. Some species of pancreatitis can be triggered by allergic reactions. It begins to produce antibodies are prone toof autoaggression. Similar processes occur in pancreatitis, when the gland itself is destroyed. (See also: Causes, symptoms and treatment of Allergy)
- Infection. Varicella, chronic tonsillitis, hepatic failure, hepatitis, mumps, inflammation of a purulent character, localized in the peritoneal cavity and off, dysentery and sepsis of gut – all of these infection may cause inflammation of the pancreas.
- Genetic predisposition. Possible genetic disorders, which provoke the development of the disease in early childhood.
Statistics pancreatitis for reasons of appearance
- 40% of all patients with pancreatitis are alcoholics. They often reveal or necrosis of the organ, or destructive of its violation.
- 30% of patients – patients with gallstone disease in history.
20% of patients – patients with obesity. (See also: obesity: the obesity rates and its causes)
- 5% of patients – patients suffering from the trauma of an organ or organism intoxication of pharmaceutical drugs.
- Less than 5% of patients – patients with a hereditary predisposition to the formation of inflammation, or suffering from congenital defects of development of body.
What is pancreatitis?Inflammation on symptoms related to signs of serious poisoning. The enzymes in pancreatitis remain in the pancreatic ducts or in the body and destroying it from the inside. In addition, they are absorbed into the blood, which leads to the development of intoxication.
So, what is pancreatitis? It is possible to allocate following signs:
- Severe pain is always accompanied by inflammation of the gland. They torment the patient on a regular basis, their character – cutting or blunt. The pain can be so strong that can provoke a painful shock. The place of their localization is the right upper quadrant or left upper quadrant, or region, located slightly below the medial edge of the sternum. The exact location of the pain depends on what part of the body has suffered inflammation. If the entire gland is inflamed, then pain are surrounding the character.
- The increase in body temperature, a drop or increase in pressure. The more intenseinflammation, the worse to feel sick. Body temperature rises to high values, and a possible jump in blood pressure.
- Change the color of the skin on the face. First, the facial features of the patient dwell. Secondly, the skin turn pale, and is becoming sallow-gray.
- The occurrence of vomiting. After the exits of vomit out, the patient is not experiencing feelings of relief. The masses themselves contain undigested food, bile and subsequently mass. In this regard, fasting is an important moment in the treatment of inflammation, which lays the Foundation for further successful recovery.
- Nausea and hiccups. In addition, you may receive the belching and the dry mouth.
- Formation of constipation or diarrhea. Most often, the acute phase is accompanied by frothy foul-smelling stool containing food particles. Constipation is often the first sign of inflammation, in parallel, the patient has hardening of the abdominal muscles and bloating.
- The occurrence of dyspnea. This symptom is formed due to loss of electrolytes during vomiting. The person acts clammy sweat, the tongue formed a yellow tinge in large quantities.
- Bloating. Stop of the bowel and stomach causes bloating, what the doctor diagnoses when performing palpation.
- The appearance of bluish spots. They occur mainly on the waist and around the navel. The skin seems like marble, but in the groin it can become blue-green. The reason for this condition is the penetration of blood from the inflamed organ beneath your skin.
- Yellowing of the skin and sclera of the eye. If there is sclerosing pancreatitis, the patient develops obstructive jaundice. It is formed due to compression of the bile duct inflammation of the body.
If the person has signs of acute pancreatitis, the condition will quickly deteriorate. Therefore, it is important to immediately seek medical help.
Same symptoms, manifested as acute, and chronic (during exacerbations) forms of pancreatitis is acute, severe pain in the abdominal area. Localization depends on what part of the pancreas covered by the inflammatory process.
The main components of the pancreas are head, body and tail. If the process has started in the head of the gland, the acute pain occurs in the right upper quadrant, if the affected body, the pain noted in the epigastric region, and pain in the left upper quadrant shows the development of theinflammation in the tail. If the process covers the entire iron, the pain syndrome is surrounding the character, may radiate to the back, behind the sternum, shoulder blade.
Pain syndrome in acute inflammation of the pancreas is considered to be one of the most powerful. Acute, sharp pain occurring in the abdomen or in the upper quadrant, tends to spread to the back, the levator scapulae and the sternum.
In the acute form, as a rule, there are violations of the chair from diarrhea to constipation. Most often patients report mushy stools with impurity undigested food, have an unpleasant odor.
What is chronic pancreatitis?Chronic pancreatitis is accompanied not only by the inflammation of the organ, but also structural changes in its tissue. Experts say that the most significant difference of the chronic form of the disease is acute progression of pathological changes in the body even after the factor provocateur was eliminated. In the end, the patient is experiencing exogenous and endogenous insufficiency of the gland.
The initial period of the chronic inflammation of the body extends, as a rule, to several years. The symptoms of the disease appears and then disappears. The second period starts from the time when the symptoms begin to pursue the man constantly.
- For several decades, the patient may present complaints only at periodic headaches that's bothering him after a quarter of an hour from meals. Pain can last from hours to several days. The place of their localization is the upper part of the abdomen, sometimes felt pain in the heart or in the left side of the sternum or lower back. In some cases of pain are surrounding the character. To decrease the intensity you can, if you bend forward or sit down.
- Pain often does not arise spontaneously but are the result of eating fatty, fried foods or alcohol. May provoke an attack of chocolate or coffee. If at the same time to eat several potentially hazardous dishes, the pain can become unbearable. This is because iron is not able to cope with different types of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. So those people, who eat separately, less likely to suffer from pancreatitis.
- The pain may be accompanied by diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, the person may begin to lose weight. However, these symptoms are not always concerned about the patient and getting even symptomatic treatment, you can quickly get rid ofdyspepsia and continue to lead habitual way of life, but until the next attack.
- When pancreatitis takes a chronic nature and the person does not receive proper treatment, the structure of the organ would be destroyed. There are signs of enzymatic and hormonal deficiency. And the pain such people may not suffer at all. Most prevalent symptoms of dyspeptic disorders.
- The skin of the patient acquire unexpressed yellowness. The same applies to the sclera. Yellowing of the skin passes.
When an organ atrophies completely, a person develops diabetes. (See also: causes, signs and symptoms of diabetes)
The basis of the following types of chronic inflammation of the pancreas was based on the symptoms from which the patient suffers from:
- Asymptomatic inflammation – for years, the patient is not even aware of the existence of a problem;
- Dyspeptic inflammation in a patient, in the foreground, diarrhea, flatulence, weight loss;
- Pain inflammation the patient suffers from pronounced pain that occurs after eating and drinking;
- Psevdoopujol inflammation – symptoms similar to the symptoms of pancreatic cancer, in this patient, yellow skin and sclera.
What to do if you suspect chronic pancreatitis?
The passage of a full survey after a visit to the gastroenterologist is the right actions of a person with suspected chronic inflammation of the organ.
Diagnosis is exposed after the following diagnostic methods:
- The change in the amount of elastase in the urine is the main method of laboratory examination of patient;
- Identification of steatorrhea – the presence of undigested fat in the stool;
- Diagnostic tests for the stimulation of the body;
- Ultrasound examination;
- Computer tomography on the testimony;
- Performing analysis of blood glucose and test for glucose tolerance.
If used for diagnosis, only the data of ultrasound diagnosis, it can be misleading. Often pancreatitis is not giving any specific signs and specialist conducting the examination, can detect only a slight diffuse changes, or swelling of the body. Even though these indicators are visible on ultrasound only during exacerbation of the disease.
Attack pancreatitis – what to do?
An acute inflammation of an organ is a serious problem that can jeopardize not only the health but the life of the patient. Treatment is carried out strictly in hospital, because people may die without timely qualified help.
The pain and other symptoms of an attack of pancreatitisThe pain is intense, do not stop. Appears in the abdominal area, but can radiate to the back, lower back, under the shoulder blade. The nature of the feelings blunt or cutting.
Such a high intensity of pain due to the abundance of nerve endings in the pancreas, which when inflammation are involved in the pathological process. Person during an attack may even experience a painful shock.
Acute pain similar to the dagger is a sign of destructive inflammation. Irritation of the peritoneum when stroking tells about the involvement in the process of inflammation. Pain several back down with pressure on the abdomen and are aggravated by the drop. To reduce the threshold of pain a man can, if he pulls legs to the stomach.
Loss of consciousness is the result of the unbearable pain. If it has no tendency to decay, and continues to grow, it is very dangerous symptom which speaks of the manifestation of the process of destruction of the body.
- Pain occurs on the background of vomiting (first food, then bile), flatulence and a complete lack of appetite.
- Diarrhea has a fetid smell, the masses detected by undigested food. The chair is badly washed out, as it has a lot of fats. Constipation and diarrhea alternate sometimes the chair may not be for a long time.
- In the lying position, the pain getting stronger. Forced position of the patient with stroke, sedentary, leaning forward.
- Occurs belching, hiccups, there is a dry mouth.
- The body temperature increases, shortness of breath and chills.
- The language of the patient overlaid with a whitish bloom. Two days later, the skin loses elasticity, you develop signs of beriberi, is weight loss.
- Blood pressure falls, the skin becomes gray, there is a pronounced weakness.
Since these symptoms may be accompanied by not only the pancreatitis, but also other pathologies of the digestive tract, you identify the problem needs a doctor. This can be done only on the basis of diagnostic data.
What to do when an attack of pancreatitis?
- Bannedto take some food. And to refrain from eating, you should for 3 days. This must be done to stop the production of enzymes that increase the inflammatory response and pain. You can drink water without gas and additives.
- In the epigastric region make cold – it helps reduce the intensity of pain a bit to remove swelling and inflammation. It is best if instead of ice will be used a hot water bottle filled with cold water.
- The patient should be in bed and resting. This will reduce blood flow to the affected organ, and thus reduce the inflammation.
- Permitted drugs for self-acceptance – Drotaverine, Strong, no-Spa and Maxigan. They can drink up to the arrival of ambulance crews. Meanwhile, call the doctors necessary even if the patient is not sure that he had an attack of acute pancreatitis. Because this disease is dangerous because at some time it may subside and then recur rapidly.
Especially the often rapid relapse occurs when necrosis of the body. So the mother is so important to the patient (despite his protests) passed the comprehensive examination.
The three key words in the treatment of the patient with acute pancreatitis is Calm, cold and hunger. They are the rules of first aid in case of attack.
Taking any digestive enzymes could exacerbate the pathological process. To facilitate as capable of proton pump inhibitors in particular, Rabeprazole and Omeprazole.
If you know that the patient encountered before the attack was subjected to at least one of the factors provocateurs of inflammation (alcohol, overeating, injury, etc.), then an ambulance should be called without delay.
Here is a list of the most popular methods of treatment:
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Prevention of pancreatitisTreatment of acute attack of pancreatitis only in the hospital, as the patient may require surgical intervention. Several bouts of acute pancreatitis can lead to the manifestationthe chronic form of the disease. In this case, patient body gradually destroys itself.
Therefore, the prevention of pancreatitis is the best way to avoid serious health problems:
- Excessive exercise: exercising in the gym, running and jumping, visiting the baths, saunas - all this can lead to the exacerbation of the disease. The best option physical activity – implementation of therapeutic and breathing exercises and a course of massage.
- Quitting bad habits (alcohol and Smoking) will give the opportunity to reduce the load in the body, thus achieving stable remission.
- Timely treatment of diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tract. When the bubble was already formed stones, is necessary to their early elimination.
- You should eat properly, the portions should not be large, but approaches to the table to make better, more often. You should not eat at once many different products – the principle of fractional power greatly facilitates the work of the authority. You need to avoid mixing carbohydrates and proteins is the most difficult combination for cancer. Fasting days will be good for the body. Useful simple foods, cottage cheese and porridge.
- Overeating is prohibited. In order not to load your body with unnecessary food, just to listen to him while eating.
- Coffee is a favorite beverage of problem on. It any better or refuse to do, or not to drink more cups per day. Special harm to a person causes themselves, taking the drink on an empty stomach. A real blow to the gland is of instant coffee.
A sick body does not like products containing coarse fiber, so vegetables are best baked or stewed. It is important to not just give up on fatty and fried foods, but also to limit the intake of canned, salted and smoked products. Citrus fruits also fall under the restriction. It is useful to drink mineral water, menus include seafood and dairy products with low percentage of fat.
orshenin Elena Ivanovna, doctor-gastroenterologist