Causes and symptoms of heart disease, treatment and prevention
The content of the article:
What is heart disease?
Heart disease is a group of diseases in which a change in the structure and malfunction of heart valve. To heart failure are combined (affecting multiple valves) and combined (on the same valve) defects. The pathology of this type lead to changes in the circulatory system inside the heart.
Heart defects are acquired, while violations occur of the structure of the heart and blood vessels, their influence manifests itself a violation of the functional capacity of the heart and circulatory system. Among acquired heart disease is most common lesion of the mitral valve and the semilunar valve of the aorta. To defects of valves include stenosis resulting from deformation and shortening of the folds and incomplete closure, which is a consequence of the inflammatory scar adhesions.
Birth defects is the abnormal development of the heart, a disturbance in the formation of the main blood vessels in the fetal period. Various forms of congenital heart disease may be light and incompatible with life. Among the emerging heart defects of the fetus most cases of defect of interventricular and interatrial septa, persistent narrowing of the lumen and the wrong location of the great vessels.
The causes of heart diseaseThe reason for the development of a congenital heart defect is an incorrect formation of the cavities of the heart. During the period of fetal development occurs the separation of the primary common vascular trunk into the aorta and pulmonary artery. When a child is born, he is still in utero features of blood flow and develop heart disease. This can be a patent ductus arteriosus or an open oval hole.
If congenital malformations can be isolated and complex lesion of the heart or blood vessels, fetal defects valvular. The main reason in the development of valvular heart disease consider rheumatism and rheumatic infective endocarditis. Sometimes the pathology is caused by atherosclerosis, trauma, systemic diseases of connective tissue. Acquired defects
Symptoms of heart disease
There are compensated heart defects that usually occur secretly andasthma, manifested by shortness of breath, palpitations, fatigue, pain in the heart, and fainting. When mitral regurgitation of the left atrioventricular opening is completely covered by the bicuspid valve during the systole of the left ventricle, because of this, the reverse reflux of blood into the Atria.
In compensated mitral heart defect weakens myocardial contractility of the left heart. There stagnation in small and big circle of blood circulation. Decompensated form is manifested by edema of the lower extremities, enlargement of the liver, swelling of the veins of the neck. In this period, the development of stagnation in the pulmonary circulation provokes cough, and intermittent heart pain, hemoptysis. Visually, the doctor reveals redness and blueness of the skin of the patient.
Typically, the compensation period takes place without any serious violations. Children suffering from heart disease, lag behind in physical development, be immature, there has been the emergence of "cardiac hump".
Often when the heart develops atrial fibrillation, reduced systolic and increased diastolic pressure. Heart defect in which there is aortic insufficiency, over time, lead to relative coronary insufficiency, patients feel strong tremors and pain in the heart area. This is because deteriorating blood circulation in the coronary arteries at a low pressure in the aorta during diastole and develops cardiac hypertrophy.
Manifestations of heart failure can be headaches, throbbing in the head and neck. Patients feel dizzy, and often they are fainting because there is a circulatory disturbance of the brain. When attenuated the contractile activity of the left ventricle, marked pallor of the skin caused by insufficient blood filling of the arteries in diastole.
Diagnosis of heart diseaseThe diagnosis can be established by pulse, rhythm on the left and right hand can vary. Diagnosis in patients with suspected heart disease begins with the health check alone, the portability of their physical activity. The reasons with the help of medical history, complaints of the patient. Apply the method of palpation and inspection to identify cyanosis, pulsation of peripheral veins, shortness of breath, swelling. Determine the presence of hypertrophy of the heart, tappedheart sounds and tones.
Check lung function, determine the size of the liver. Using ECG, establish a heart rhythm, a kind of arrhythmia, blockade, and signs of ischemia. Used phonocardiography to register sounds and heart tones, and determination of valvular heart. Also achieve the accuracy of diagnosis when using radiographs of the heart, echocardiography, MSCT or MRI of the heart. Laboratory tests – rheumatoid samples, the determination of the sugar level and the presence of cholesterol. The compulsory clinical analysis of blood and urine.
Treatment of heart defects
When heart disease conservative treatment is the prevention of complications. All the efforts of the medical therapy aimed at preventing recurrence of primary diseases, such as rheumatism, infectious endocarditis. Is necessarily performed correction of arrhythmias and heart failure under the supervision of a cardiac surgeon.
Based on the shape of the heart defect, treatment.
Patients are encouraged to engage in those work activities that do not involve physical strain. Quitting Smoking and alcohol, performance physical therapy, Spa treatment for cardiac resorts – one of the many ways of treatment of main defects of human body.
Prevention of heart disease
As for birth defects, there are no recommendations as to influence in utero development is quite difficult. Prevention of acquired heart diseases
is the prevention of rheumatism, syphilis, sepsis. To prevent the disease is necessary to avoid the influence of infectious sources.
It is useful to hardening, is not superfluous physical training of the body. When formed of a pathology of heart with the purpose of warning of heart failure need to comply with the best mode. Positive influence on heart Hiking, a balanced diet, reducing the amount of salt when cooking.