Bleeding in the retina of the eye
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What is bleeding in the retina?
Bleeding in the retina of the eye is bleeding into the tissue of the retina caused by damage to the walls of eye blood vessels. Bleeding is visually can be subtle, but is very dangerous, as it is located in the retina of the visual receptors.
Hemorrhage in the retina occurs quite often and can be a consequence of mechanical injuries, and certain diseases. Any bleeding, especially repeated, requires a mandatory medical consultation, because in this case substantially increases the risk of retinal detachment eyes.
Causes hemorrhages in the retinaThe most common cause of such bleeding is blunt trauma (contusion) of the eye. The external mechanical force can act directly on the eye, and through the surrounding tissue (a blow to the face, head or even in aperture).
The force of gravity, there are three degrees of concussion:
Easy, when the visible manifestations of almost no structures of the eye is not damaged, there is a slight swelling of the cornea and the retina, vision can be restored in full;
Medium, which is characterized by damage to the tissues of the eye (hemorrhage under the conjunctiva and its gaps, erosion of the cornea) and impairment of vision up to light perception;
Heavy, accompanied by irreversible structural changes in the tissues of the eye (ruptures of the choroid and retina, lens dislocation), and the complete loss of visual function.
Even mild injuries can lead to significant changes in the structure of the eyeball. Similarly, the symptoms and symptoms of a concussion do not always correspond to the actual severity of the injury. Often hemorrhages in the optic bodies are accompanied by closed brain injury.
Second, a rather numerous group of reasons, are common diseases:
Atherosclerosis – blood vessels,covered sclerotic plaques, lose their elasticity and become more susceptible to influences;
Hypertension – when high blood pressure the risk of rupture of the vessel wall increases;
Diabetes – high glucose leads to aneurysms (bulging) and weakening of the vascular walls;
The third group are directly eye diseases:
- Intraocular tumors, compressing blood vessels;
- Myopia (short-sightedness) of high to medium;
- Anomalies of development and inflammation of the choroid of the eye (angiopathy or retinal vein thrombosis, uveitis, iritis).
In a separate group can be distinguished intense physical activity:
- Sports, cardio;
- Attempts at childbirth;
Strong cough or cry;
- Shaking (especially in infants).
Symptoms of bleeding in the retina of the eye
Common symptoms of bloodshot eyes include:
- The decline in the extent and clarity of vision, blurring, doubling of the image;
- Limitation of movement of eyeball;
- Education grid in front of the eyes;
- Flashing "flies".
Originally before my eyes a muddy spot which gradually grows. With significant vast cases the vision may disappear completely.
When contusion of the orbit of the eye, diseases of the blood and vasculitis may marked bulging forward of the eyeball (exophthalmos).
If expired blood is localized along the vessels or at the periphery of the fundus, the blurred vision is either absent or negligible. If the hemorrhage has occurred in the Central part of the retina (macular region), the vision is reduced quickly and substantially.
Hemorrhages outside of the macular zone can remain unnoticed for a man and only be detected upon examination by an ophthalmologist, the diagnosis of the ocular fundus.
Treatment of hemorrhage in the retinaBleeding in the retina of the eye is diagnosed by fundus examination using Ophthalmoscope. Also need to do a General blood test to clarify the cause of the hemorrhage, or possible detection of the underlying disease, to take appropriate measures to prevent re-hemorrhage.
With extensive hemorrhage and severe lesions of the retina can be surgery – vitrectomy. During this operation deletes the opaque portion of the vitreous body of the eye and blood clots. Vision is recovering after surgery for several weeks. The amount of visual function restored is dependent on the condition of the retina and optic nerve. If they contain organic changes, even when positive results of the operation (transparency of the vitreous body, a good fit of the retina), vision may remain low.
With moderate hemorrhage not associated with serious diseases, the main recommendation is a maximum of relaxation and rest for the eyes. It is helpful to sit quietly with your eyes closed for a long time, this contributes to the natural sediment of the blood. Very important to avoid during this time eye any foreign bodies (dirt, etc.) to not get infected. Vision is restored within approximately 3-4 weeks.
Because of drugs can be administered hemostatic and sosudoukreplyayuschee tools; special drugs for the treatment of hemorrhages in the retina present. For example, eye drops "Emoxipin" strengthen blood vessels of the eyes and protect them from excessive lighting. Use them only after the examination and prescription. Also it is recommended to take vitamin C and vitamin K, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels and improve blood clotting.
Preventive measures are to strengthen immunity, timely therapy of common diseases. People at risk should avoid sudden head movements and tilts down.