A cyst of the spleen
A cyst of the spleen detects approximately one percent of the Earth's inhabitants. Moreover, a substantial proportion of patients with such a cyst is detected during normal examination. Women 35-55 years are more prone to this disease, men – 4 times less. Distinguish between varieties of cysts of the spleen: single, multiple, true, false (inflammatory, traumatic).
A true cyst is a congenital and is a consequence of pathology of embryogenesis. It is a hereditary disease or genetic disorder – cystic destruction of numerous different organs (e.g., liver, kidney, brain). Cause about cysts are considered to be serious injuries to the spleen with different types of discontinuities, complex operations, and some types of modern drugs, various infectious diseases and the consequences of myocardial infarction of the spleen.
Clinical manifestations of splenic cysts
A typical clinic cysts is shown depending on the scale, location and nature of the cyst. If the cyst has a size of two centimeters, the symptoms. Some typical complaints of patients suffering cyst of the spleen, often do not have. At maximum volume the external signs of disturbance of the spleen may be absent, but there is often chronic or recurrent pain in the abdomen. They can start much earlier (maybe even several years) before the doctor will find a cyst.
Quite often, many patients complain of severe shoulder pain, heaviness, and unpleasant feeling left in the area of the ribs, and after meals feel nausea and vomiting. Sometimes there are other signs in the respiratory organs, such as the tingling feeling in his chest during a deep breath, regular coughing and shortness of breath.
When the diameter of the cyst of 7-8 cm or with multiple lesions cysts 1/5 of the spleen is seen increasing it, there is a strong nausea and disorders of function of digestive organs. If it starts purulent inflammatory process in the cyst, the patient in mostcases there is fever, shivering, General weakness.
The main complications of this disease are exploding cyst (the contents of the cysts flows out into the abdominal cavity), severe bleeding, and the inevitable ingress of infection develops an abscess. All this causes severe intoxication and in rare cases, peritonitis.
Most often, a cyst of the spleen is detected by routine physical examination and also during the passage of ultrasound and tomography. When the cyst found is the question of determining its species, to accurately diagnose and then prescribe the right treatment. This issue is solved with the help of modern serology for the presence of parasites. If the diameter of the cyst is less than three centimeters, it is enough to consult a specialist and do at least once a year screening ultrasound.
If the cyst increases in size or changes its structure, it is necessary to do a CT scan with contrast to rule out a malignant growth in the walls of the cysts. Surgery these patients is not prescribed. Folk methods of treatment of splenic cysts do not produce results because they do not have the necessary elements resorption of focal fibrosis.
On surgery sent patients three categories:
1) Unconditional: purulent inflammation, bleeding, breaks;
2) Conditional-unconditional: of suppuration, hemorrhage, rupture, cysts with a diameter greater than ten centimeters, when the patient suffers a steady, chronic pain in the left side;
3) Relative: the diameter of 3-10 cm cysts, recurrence after previous treatment ineffective.
To date, surgical intervention is considered appropriate treatment, as the patient can return to normal life in the shortest amount of time.
There are several types of treatment of cysts of the spleen through surgery. The first type is the removal of a large portion of the cyst shell and processed in specially prepared plasma. The second is the complete removal of all splenic cysts. And the third is characterized by the use of ultrasonic equipment, which is to puncture the cyst and the introduction into the cavity of sclerosing solution.
Puncture in today's medical practice is used in surgery for the treatment of common cysts with a diameter of 5 centimeters, which are on the surface of the body. The usual open surgery with a large incision of the peritoneum is now used very rarely.
If necessary, removal of the cyst along with spleen using a unique splenectomy. In modern surgical practice are also using laparoscopy. This method has several obvious advantages, which should includethe least trauma, a superior cosmetic result, rapid rehabilitation. In addition, you can simultaneously adjust concomitant diseases of abdominal cavity organs, small pelvis, which require surgery.
In the future, a patient is recommended the supervision of a haematologist and the surgeon. Some specific diet to the patients operated on do not need. For 2-3 months it is desirable to reduce serious physical overload. When the rehabilitation period expires, any patient is considered healthy, however, he is advised over the next 2 years once a year to undergo ultrasound.