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Causes and symptoms of the common cold, how to treat?

Rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa. The medical name for the common cold –rhinitis. Runny noses (or rhinitis) often evoke viruses and microbes.

The mucosa of the nasal cavity is the primary barrier against infections, villi on its surface trap dust and dirt that enters the nose during breathing. In addition, in the nasal cavity occurs warming the air to a comfortable temperature. Runny nose and colds often come with colds, local immunity is weakened and the pathogens have the opportunity for reproduction and distribution down the nasopharynx and respiratory tract.

The content of the article:

Causes of runny nose

A runny nose can occur for different reasons. The most common cause of rhinitis are infectious agents – viruses, bacteria and fungi. The most common reason– virus group rhinoviruses, coronaviruses and adenoviruses. Then the disease is classified as infectious rhinitis.

Another cause inflammation of the nasopharynx mucosa – allergic reaction. The fall allergens in the nasal passages during respiration, causing swelling, mucus secretion and nasal congestion. In this case, the disease klassificeret as allergic rhinitis.

Allergic and infectious rhinitis require different approaches to treatment – to soften the negative signs of the disease in both cases, use decongestants that allows you to briefly ease breathing of the patient and to temper the mucus. However, infectious rhinitis require a comprehensive therapy with the use of antiseptic agents and in the treatment of allergic rhinitis are used hormonal and histamine receptors.

Possible causes of rhinitis:

Infectious rhinitis. This kind of cold circulated more than others and is familiar to almost everyone. Infectious rhinitis occurs in an acute form, most often it is caused by bacteria, viruses, and rarely fungi. If the patient has a robust immune system, infectious coryza ends quickly and without complications.

Congenital causes. Anomalies of developmentduring pregnancy impairs normal functioning of the nose and cause chronic rhinitis. Such reasons include violation of the structure of the facial bones, a deviated septum, hypertrophy or deformity of the nasal cavities. Most common unilateral defect, when not functioning in the deformed nostril, and through the other cavity is freely supplied with air.

This rare cause of chronic rhinitis, syndrome of Kartagener. Another name for the pathology of primary ciliary dyskinesia. The disease damages the mechanism of removal of mucus from the mucous of the nose due to improper functioning of the ciliated epithelium. The result is stasis of mucus in the nasal cavity and in the bronchi, the development of bronchitis, transition of rhinitis chronic.

Allergies. One of the most frequent causes in children and adults long current chronic rhinitis – allergic rhinitis. It appears not only in the time of flowering, but in winter, when it would seem that the reasons for the occurrence of allergies should not be.

Common allergens:

  • Wool Pets;
  • Feathers of parrots;
  • Book, home, industrial dust;
  • Chemicals detergents, varnishes and paints.

Drug rhinitis. Runny nose caused by medication, occurs for two reasons:

  • Rhinitis is a side effect of medications (e.g., medications that reduce the pressure);
  • Appears rebound effect after overdose decongestants for the common cold.

"Rebound" rhinitis may develop after 4-5 days after the start of treatment conventional rhinitis drops with vasoconstrictor effect. Late cancellation drops of cold leads to addictive nasal mucosa. Withdrawal of the drug leads to increased swelling, increasing the dose leads to resistance of mucosal cells to the active substance. The result of this situation – the symptoms of rhinitis, even at maximum doses. It is therefore not recommended to use vasoconstrictor drops beyond the period specified in the instructions.

Adenoids. The growth of adenoids, located at the entrance to the nasal cavity from the pharynx, becomes a cause of chronic rhinitis in children. Hypertrophied tonsils blocks the lumen of the nasal passages that is creating the obstacle of current of air. Often found a combination of hypertrophyadenoids with otitis media, sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis. Tissue growth of the tonsils triggers the growth of pathogenic bacteria that cause inflammation of the tissues of the nasopharynx. Read more: causes and symptoms of adenoids

Foreign body. Most often, this atypical cause of rhinitis found in children of early preschool age.

The child may imperceptibly from the parents to put in the nose:

  • Small toys and components;
  • Pencils;
  • Particles of food;
  • Buttons;
  • Vitamins and fine candies;
  • Stationery and household items of a small size;
  • Parasites (worms).

The characteristic symptom of a foreign body in the nose – the release of liquid mucus from one nostril. When duration of the current cold audiologist with experience is always the first suspect in the nose during a foreign body. Recorded case of chronic rhinitis, lasting for 20 years, the cause of which was caught as a child in the nose button. It was discovered the woman quite by accident when x-ray examination.

The most common drug in this group, allergies, providing antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effects, it has some oil of mountain pine, mint and eucalyptus. Read more: herbal nasal drops

Saline solutions nasal. Rinsing salt solutions is one of the most effective ways to treat the common cold. Saline solutions are used as in infectious and allergic rhinitis, as they cleanse the nasal passages from infectious agents, allergens and excess mucus, preventing drying and damage of the mucosa.

Saline solutions have no restrictions in use even for young children, it has no side effects typical of a vasoconstrictor, it is not formed of addiction. Common drugs in this group – the Phrase, saline, Humer, Akvamaris, Marker.

Drugs from allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis treat specialized medicines – in addition to vasoconstrictor drugs can be used blockers of histamine receptors and hormonal agents. Among hormonal drugs most often prescribed Flixonase, almost four years, Nasobec, Nasonex. Nasonex effect is already apparent after 12 hours, the patient's General condition is greatly improved. Drugs are for topical application, so do not affect the state of the organism as a whole.

Contraindications for hormonal methods – it is strictly forbidden to use them in infectious rhinitis, because these drugs may promote the growth of bacteria on the nasal mucosa. Hormone treatment is used only in case if the rhinitis is allergic in nature. Read more: nose drops for edema and allergies

Homeopathic curecold. Homeopathic remedies with antiviral effect that promotes lymph drainage, relieve swelling and strengthen the immune system and can be quite effective in the treatment of rhinitis. Among them distinguish drugs such as EDAS-131, Cinnabon, Euphorbium expensive, But they Help with the composition of natural components that help the body fight viruses.

But the effect of homeopathic remedies is difficult to predict in advance, as in different people the active ingredients can have different effects. Therefore, the treatment of the common cold with homeopathic medicine can take. Read more: homeopathic nasal drops

Pencil asterisk from the cold. Vietnamese the Asterisk comes in the form of a balm, ointment, patch, nasal spray and pencil for inhalation, successfully fighting off colds due to the complex natural ingredients – it includes cinnamon, clove, eucalyptus and peppermint essential oils. Due to these components the facility has a characteristic aroma, and when applied gives a cooling effect.

Pencil asterisk much easier to use than the classic Golden Star balm in a tin – it gets directly into the nasal cavity does not leave the characteristic aroma does not cause irritation.

If the effect of the balm is reflexogenic in nature – it is applied on the heels, chest, nose to the ground points that are used in the Eastern practice of acupuncture, the pencil Asterisk falls directly on the mucosa, softening it, reducing the swelling and amount of mucus secretion. You can use it from 7 to 12 times a day, it takes in turn each nostril to breathe into the filter, impregnated with aromatic oils.

Contraindications there are for people prone to allergic reactions and small children.

What you can and cannot do in the cold?

  • Can I warm nose in the cold? Most popular recipes for the treatment of rhinitis is based on the heating of the nose in different ways – poultices of salt, mustard, boiled egg. Warming can really be helpful, as provoke a stronger flow of blood, which contains immune cells. This allows to shorten the period of convalescence, speeding up the flow ofof inflammatory processes. However, such heating should be done properly in order not to provoke the appearance of spider veins on the nose. Also, it is strictly contraindicated to warm up the nose at an elevated temperature. (see also: high temperature - what not to do?)

  • Is it possible to do inhalation with a cold? Inhalation is considered the most effective treatment for the common cold, so in the process of inhaling the vapors the useful components of treatment solutions instantly fall to the mucosa and have an effect. In comparison with other means of local application for the treatment of rhinitis inhalation have a number of advantages. So, in contrast to preparations for instillation, for inhalation drug solution does not flow into the oral cavity and does not enter the stomach, and is evenly distributed throughout the mucous membrane, and remains there for exposure.

    Modern inhalers (nebulizers) – more effective in the treatment of rhinitis. Drug solutions with their help penetrate all parts of the nasal cavity and in the maxillary sinus and bronchi that it is necessary for the treatment of sinusitis and chronic respiratory diseases. The nebulizer supplies the particles of a solution of a certain size (5-8 microns) necessary for the most effective impact, whereas in normal inhalation into the nasal cavity receives the particle size to 10 µm and larger, or particles smaller than 5 microns. In the first case, the active substance simply cannot penetrate further the nasal cavity, and the second particles are immediately exhaled, and they have no time to impact.

  • Is it possible to go to the bath with a cold? The bathhouse will benefit only if the runny nose does not flow on increased temperature as well as at the early or final stages of colds when the temperature is either not yet risen or already asleep.

  • Is it possible to soar legs in the cold? Hot foot bath with a cold can accelerate the process of recovery and can be a substantial help for the body to fight infection, especially if the cause of the common cold is hypothermia.However, not rekomenduetsya feet in the cold, if you have increased body temperature. Soar feet is also contraindicated for varicose veins, hypertension.

To what doctor to address?

With a cold you need to turn to our General practitioner, GP or ENT doctor. In the case of rhinitis to pollen in the flowering period – to the allergist.