Home / Disease / Causes, symptoms and treatment of Allergy

Causes, symptoms and treatment of Allergy


What is an Allergy?

An Allergy is a hypersensitivity of the body to any substance. This substance can be any chemical element, product, hair, dust, pollen, or microbes.

Today it is well established that allergens can be substances produced within the body. They are called antiallergen, or autoallergens. They are natural proteins of unchanged tissues that are isolated from the systems that are responsible for immunity. And purchased – whites who buy foreign properties from thermal, radiation, chemical, bacterial, viral, and other factors. For example, an allergic reaction develops in glomerulonephritis, rheumatism, arthritis, hypothyroidism.

Allergies can rightly be assigned a second name "Disease of the century", because at the present time, this disease, or rather its variety suffers more than 85% of the total population of our planet. Allergies – is inadequate reaction of the human body on contact or contact with his allergen. Most often the allergies are not treated, all so-called treatment is to ascertain the direct allergen and its complete isolation, in this case, prevention is more important than the treatment itself. In the first place, so that preventive steps were successful, you need to make the right conclusions about the causes of disease. In order to recognize an allergic reaction, you must know its allergic symptoms, so that timely and correctly to provide medical care to the allergic.

Allergy is an individual disease. Some are allergic to pollen, others to dust, the third allergic to cats. Allergy is the basis of diseases such as for example, bronchial asthma, urticaria, dermatitis. The development of some infectious diseases may be accompanied by allergies. In this case, the Allergy is called infectious Allergy. Moreover, the same allergen can cause different symptoms of allergies in different people and at different times.

In the last decades there was marked increase in the incidence of allergies. There are various theories to explain this phenomenon: the Theory of the impact of hygiene — this theory claims that hygiene deprives the body of contact with many antigens, which causes poor development of the immune system (especially inchildren). Increasing consumption of chemical products - a chemical products can act as allergens, and to create preconditions for the development of allergic reactions through dysfunction of the nervous and endocrine systems.

Allergy symptoms

There is really just a huge variety of forms of Allergy, therefore, the symptoms of Allergy are different, too. Allergic symptoms are very easily confused with other diseasesthat had similar symptoms that happens every day in medical practice.

Respiratory Allergy manifested after hitting the allergen into the body during breathing. These allergens are often different types of gases, pollen, or very fine dust, allergens such called airborne. This can be attributed to allergies of the respiratory tract. This Allergy is manifested in the form of:

  • Sneezing

  • Itching in the nose

  • The common cold (or just watery allocation from a nose)

  • Possible severe cough

  • Rales in the lungs

  • In some cases, suffocation

The main manifestations of this variety of Allergy, can be considered still asthma and allergic rhinitis.

Dermatosis is accompanied by different rashes and irritations on the skin. It can cause different types of allergens, such as food, airborne, cosmetics, household chemicals, drugs.

This kind of Allergy usually manifests as:

  • Redness of the skin

  • Itching

  • Peeling

  • Dryness

  • Rash similar to eczema

  • Blisters

  • Severe swelling

Allergic conjunctivitis. There is also the manifestation of Allergy that affects the eyes is called allergic conjunctivitis. Manifests as:

  • A strong burning sensation in the eyes

  • Increased lacrimation

  • Swelling of the skin around the eyes

Enteropathy. Quite often you can find a variety of Allergy-like enteropathy, which begins manifested by the use of any products or drugs, this reaction occursdue to allergic reactions of the gastrointestinal tract. This kind of Allergy is manifested in the form of:

Anaphylactic shock is the most dangerous manifestation of Allergy. It can occur in just a few seconds or may take up to five hours for its occurrence, after hitting the allergen into the organism, provoked by an insect bite (it should be noted that it is quite often the case) or drugs. Recognize anaphylactic shock can be on grounds such as:

  • Sudden shortness of breath

  • Cramps

  • Loss of consciousness

  • Rash all over body

  • Involuntary urination

  • Defecation

  • Vomiting

If a person has the above symptoms, you should immediately call an ambulance and render first aid. In anaphylactic shock, can not linger, as this can lead to death.

Manifestation of Allergy is quite often confused with symptoms of colds. Difference ordinary cold and Allergy consists firstly in that the body temperature is usually not increased, and nasal discharge remain liquid and transparent like water. Sneezing with allergies is whole, long series in a row, and most importantly, at cold all the symptoms usually pass quite quickly and if you are allergic they last much longer.

Causes of allergies

The cause of allergies is most often poor diet and unhealthy lifestyle. For example, excessive consumption of refined foods or foods stuffed with chemicals and additives. Cause allergies can also be a simple emotional or psychological stress.

Allergies can be recognized by the unexpected runny nose, sneezing or watery eyes. Redness and itching of the skin may also speak about the presence of Allergy. Most often an allergic reaction occurs when human contact with certain substances called allergens. The body reacts to it as a pathogen and trying to defend himself. The allergens include, as substances that have a direct sensitizing action and substanceswhich are able to potentiate the effects of other allergens.

People's reaction to different groups of allergens depends on the genetic characteristics of the immune system. Numerous data indicate the existence of hereditary predisposition to allergies. Parents with allergies are at greater risk of delivering a child with the same pathology than healthy couples.

The cause of allergies can be:

  • The foreign proteins contained in the donor plasma and vaccines

  • Dust (street, home, or portrait)

  • Pollen

  • The spores of fungi or mildew

  • Some drugs (penicillin)

  • Food (usually eggs, milk, wheat, soy, seafood, nuts, fruit)

  • Bites of insects/arthropods

  • Animal fur

  • Highlight home of the tick

  • Latex

  • Chemical cleaning products

Effects allergies

Most people mistakenly believe that Allergy safe disease and occurs without consequences. An allergic reaction causes unpleasant symptoms, accompanied by fatigue, increased irritability, decreased immunity. But this is not all the consequences of allergies. The disease often provokes eczema, hemolytic anemia, serum sickness, bronchial asthma.

The most serious complication is difficulty breathing, the developing anaphylactic shock with convulsions, loss of consciousness, a dangerous drop in blood pressure. Anaphylactic shock occurs after administration of certain drugs, due to insect bites and presence of the irritant factor in food. The most common signs of allergies are nasal congestion and frequent sneezing.

The main difference of an Allergy from a cold is that the above symptoms persist for much longer time than conventional OCR. Allergic dermatitis or atopic dermatitis, the consequences of allergies, develop rapidly and in advanced cases are treated long and difficult. Dermatitis is expressed by edema, blisters, itching, peeling, redness.

Another more severe consequence of Allergy is anaphylactic shock. This disease occurs less frequently, but it is very dangerous and is growing rapidly. Effects of allergies are difficult to foresee. This disease always to be surprised, and if the immunethe system is functioning normally, the person recovers quickly. But it also happens that the symptoms increase too fast and then need to quickly take antihistamines. This group includes "Diphenhydramine", "Suprastin", "Tavegil". These drugs should always be the home kit, but their reception is carried out only after consultation with a specialist who will prescribe the necessary treatment, this allows you to avoid the consequences of allergies.

Risk factors

Still not clear why the same factors of anthropogenic environment on some people have such an impact, while others will not. No relationship of allergies General health condition was also not revealed. However, there is a perception that allergies can be the cause of severe slagging of the body, therefore, many have resorted to cleansing the body. The cause of allergies may also be the presence in the body of parasites. To date, there is no doubt about the fact that in some cases of many allergic diseases in children are provoked by changes of the intestinal microflora, i.e. dysbiosis. It is known that the intestinal dysbiosis the integrity of the tissue barrier is disrupted, resulting in blood comes not digested allergens (e.g., protein fragments). Dysbacteriosis in children, therefore, may be the cause of atopic dermatitis, food Allergy, eczema.

Some allergies lead to the development of serious diseases. For example, in some cases, asthma that causes difficulty breathing, has an allergic nature. This is a common disease, frequently occurring in children. Allergy is a common cause of skin disease, called eczema.

Hay fever is also a manifestation of Allergy. During an attack people sneeze, they shed tears, and there is cold, like the flu. Usually these signs appear in spring and summer (during the mass flowering of various plants).

How to detect the allergen?

If you find yourself allergic symptoms, but do not know the reasons for their appearance – be sure to consult your doctor, who will make or confirm a diagnosis, will individually prescribe proper treatment.

In addition to the inspectionyou will also need a number of specific Allergy tests.

Skin tests - study is assigned to the case, if there is a suspicion of Allergy. Among the main benefits of this study worth noting is the ease of implementation, quick results and low cost. The procedure not only provides accurate information about the cause of allergies, but also to determine the allergen that caused the reaction. The essence of the skin test involves injection into the skin of the small number of allergens, and depending on the reaction of the organism, determination of allergens that can cause sharp reaction of the patient. People of any age can carry out this study.

Despite the fact that usually the skin test is performed on the area of the skin of the inner forearm, in some cases they can be held back.

  • According to the history chosen certain injected allergens (according to the group that has caused an allergic reaction)
  • You can enter from two to twenty allergens
  • For each allergen, the skin is divided into areas, each of which has its own room
  • Small amount of the solution applied to the skin
  • In the place where the sprayed solution, the skin is "scratched" by a tool that sometimes causes the unpleasant and painful sensations

Positive reaction: within a few minutes in the place where was deposited allergenic solution, itchy, whereupon the redness and swelling round shape. Constantly increasing in diameter, at the expiration of twenty minutes the swelling should reach the maximum possible size. In that case, if the diameter of the resulting swelling exceed - introduced allergen is guilty of an allergic reaction.

In order to verify whether a study was conducted, introduced two solutions: first, all people without exception, causing the reaction described above, and the second does not detect any reaction.

It is forbidden to use anti-allergic drugs for two days prior to the test, because they can cause false results in the end.

A blood test for IgE. Measuring in the blood the amount of IgE antibodies. The study requires a small amount of blood from the vein. Usually results are ready within one or two weeks. The study is conducted in the case, if for one reason or another impossible to perform skin tests, or if the patient is forced to take drugs against allergies are constantly. Describes a study could also be assigned as additional confirmingthe results of skin tests.

Among the described species of the study worth noting:

  • The total blood levels of IgE antibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine the total number of antibodies in the blood. It is important to note that the findings are not always able to provide substantial assistance in the treatment, because there are a number of reasons why the blood levels of antibodies may be high in the absence of allergic reactions.
  • Analysis of detection in blood of specific IgE antibodies. Thanks to this study it is possible to detect highly specific to the particular food allergen antibody (for example, eggs or peanuts). Research is necessary in order to establish the level of sensitization of the organism to different types of food.

It is important to know that the results of this study, if confirmed by the presence or absence of patient allergies to determine the severity of the reaction, they not. In order to confirm the diagnosis of Allergy, the blood must contain a certain amount of IgE antibodies.

Cutaneous or application of the sample (Patch-testing) is conducting this study allows to identify the causes of allergic skin reactions such as eczema or contact dermatitis. The allergen, which presumably caused a specific reaction of the organism is contained in a special blend of petrolatum or paraffin wax. It is applied on plates of metal (about a centimeter in diameter) that contain a mixture of different allergens, after which the latter attached to the skin on the back (the patient should keep it dry for two days before conducting the study).

At the end of the time records are removed from the skin and it is under study for the presence of reactions to the allergen. In the absence of reaction the patient is asked to re-study the skin forty-eight hours. Re-examination allows you to check for any changes, which may serve as the slow response of the human body.

The above study is conducted in order to detect allergies to substances such as:

  • Chromium (Cr)
  • Neomycin
  • Epoxy
  • Nickel
  • Ethylenediamine
  • Benzocaine
  • Formaldehyde
  • Various perfume components
  • Lanolin
  • Rosin
  • Corticosteroids

Provocative tests. As with all tests of medical studies which aim at detecting allergies, have certain disadvantages. Whenavailability of allergic reactions, the tests described above do not allow precise certainty the diagnosis of Allergy.

The only option that allows postavit100%- correct diagnosis is a provocative test. The main objective of this study is to cause the patient's allergic reaction, through the use of those allergens and products which became the reason of occurrence of this reaction under the assumption of doctors. We must not forget that this study is only possible in hospital, with proper supervision of experts.

Usually the research is conducted in two cases:

1. If a proper result was not given blood sample and further analysis.

2. If the patient (often a child) after a long period of time disappears, the reaction to the allergen, previously set.

The rules are that the study should be carried out in a specialized branch compliance with all security measures, led by a group of physicians. Depending on the place of developing the allergic reaction during the study, the allergen is introduced under the tongue, nasal cavity, bronchi or in the digestive system of the patient. In that case, if an allergic reaction is re-identified, the study will be discontinued, after which the doctors will take necessary to relieve symptoms allergies measures.

First aid for Allergy

In total the reaction of allergic type can be divided into heavy and light, can cause symptoms such as:

  • Itching small skin area in that place where there was direct contact with the allergen
  • Watery eyes and itching of the eyes
  • Redness, swelling, or swelling of a small area of skin
  • The symptoms accompanying common cold (nasal congestion)
  • Sneezing, with frequent repetitions
  • Blisters to insect bites

Finding these or other symptoms, you must take the following:

  • Rinse the site of contact with allergen (skin, mouth or nose) and clean it by warm boiled water.
  • As much as possible to limit contact with the allergen
  • If the cause of allergic reactions is insect bite, and left no sting extracted, it is important to remove it as soon as possible
  • Put a cold compress on the itchy area of the skin and place a direct bite
  • Take anti-allergic medication (Fexofenadine,Loratadine, Cetirizine, Hloropiramin, Clemastin).

If the condition of the body not only not improved, but rather deteriorated, should immediately call the emergency medical help or to self-refer to a medical facility (if possible) for advice and specialized assistance doctors.

Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction:

  • Shortness of breath and difficulty breathing;
  • Spasms in the throat, a sense of closure ways of breathing;
  • Problems with speech (e.g., hoarseness);
  • Nausea, vomiting;
  • Increased pulse and heartbeat;
  • Swelling, itching, or tingling of the whole body and its individual parts;
  • Weakness, anxiety, or dizziness;

  • Loss of consciousness, and related to the above-mentioned symptoms.

1. If you find the above symptoms, you should immediately call the health team.

2. If the person is conscious, he should be given anti-Allergy drugs: Clemastine (Tavegil), Fexofenadine (Telfast), Cetirizine (Zyrtec), loratadine (claritin), chloropyramine (Suprastin) (as an injection using the same drugs in injectable form or in tablets).

3. You should put it, get rid of clothes that hinder free breathing.

4. With vomiting it is important to put the person on their side to the respiratory tract has not got vomit, thereby causing additional harm.

5. If the detected stop breathing or heartbeat, it is important to perform CPR: chest compressions and artificial respiration (of course, only if you know how to do it). Events it is important to continue as long as the functions of the heart and lungs completely recovered, and will not arrive the health team.

To prevent complications or the deterioration of the human condition, it is better without delay to seek specialized medical help (especially if children are involved).

Allergy treatment

In the treatment of allergies in the first place, you must eliminate contact with allergens from the environment. If you have allergies and know what kind of allergens can cause adverse reactions, the maximum protect yourself from any contact with them, even the slightest (the Allergy - provoking reactions of increasing severity for repeated contact with the allergen).

Treatment medicationfunds is treatment to reduce the risk of allergic reactions and also eliminate the symptoms caused by allergies.

Antihistamines. Loratadine (claritin), Fexofenadine (Telfast), Cetirizine (Zyrtec), chloropyramine (Suprastin) Clemastine (Tavegil) these drugs represent the first group and assigned to one of the first, when it comes to treating allergic reactions. At the moment when the allergen enters the body the immune system produces a special substance called histamine.

Histamine causes most of the symptoms that accompany an allergic reaction. Are the group of drugs or facilitates the reduction of the number of selected histamine, or completely blocking his selection. Despite this, completely remove the Allergy symptoms they can not afford.

It is known that, like all medicines, antihistamines can cause side effects, including drowsiness and dry mouth, dizziness, vomiting, nausea, anxiety and nervousness, difficulty urinating. Most often side effects cause antihistamines of the first generation (for example, chloropyramine (Suprastin) or Clemastine (Tavegil)). Before you start taking antihistamines, consult your doctor who will reevaluate the dosages required to you individually, as well as talk about the possibility of joint use of antihistamines with other drugs.

Decongestants (Pseudoephedrine, Xylometazoline, Oxymetazoline) – these drugs are often used to eliminate the problem of stuffy nose. Medicines available in the form of drops or sprays and are prescribed for colds, pollen Allergy (hay fever) or any allergic reactions, the main symptom which is the flu, a stuffy nose and sinusitis.

It is known that the inner surface of the nose covered with a mesh of tiny blood vessels. If in the nasal cavity enters the antigen or allergen the mucosal vessels dilate, and increasing blood flow - this peculiar system of protection of immunity. If the blood flow is great, the mucosa swells and causes severe mucus. Since decongestants affect blood vessels of the mucosa, thereby causing them to narrow, blood flow decreases, and the swelling is decreased accordingly.

It is not recommended to take these drugs to children under twelve years of age and nursing mothers, people with hypertension. You should not eat them more than five or seven days, because prolonged use causes a backlash in the form of edema of the nasal mucosa.

Among the side effects caused by this drug isto note dry mouth, pain of the head and General weakness. Very rarely the medication can cause hallucinations or anaphylactic reactions.

Before proceeding to the use of these drugs consult your doctor.

Leukotriene inhibitors (Montelukast (Singulair) are chemical substances that block caused leukotriene, reaction. These substances are produced by the body during allergic reactions and cause inflammation of the Airways of their swelling (most often used in the treatment of bronchial asthma). In the absence of interactions with other drugs, leukotriene inhibitors can be used together with other medicines. In rare cases, head, ear or throat pain are manifested adverse reactions.

Steroid sprays. (Beclomethasone (Beconase, Beclazone), fluticasone (Nasarel, Flixonase, lower blood pressure mother), Mometasone (Momat, Nasonex, Asmanex)) – in essence these drugs are hormonal drugs. Their action is aimed at reducing inflammation in the nasal passages (due to decrease of symptoms of allergic reactions is nasal congestion).

Since the absorbability of drugs is minimal, the occurrence of possible adverse reactions is eliminated. However, it is worth remembering that prolonged use of the above drugs can cause a sore throat or bleeding. Before to use a particular drug, it is imperative to visit your doctor and consult with him.

Hyposensitization. Another method of treatment used along with treatment medikamentosny – immunotherapy. The essence of this method is that your body gradually introduced by increasing the number of allergens, which ultimately leads to a decrease in sensitivity to a particular allergen.

Prevention of Allergy

Prevention of Allergy is based on preventing contact with the allergen. To prevent the appearance of Allergy are advised to avoid contact with the allergen or reduce contacts with him to a minimum. Of course, control the symptoms of allergies is difficult and very cumbersome, so not all cope with it. It is clear that if a person is suffering, such as allergies to pollen, then it is not in the flowering season to go out, especially mid-day when air temperature reaches maximum values. And people with foodallergies must give preference to the not quite favorite products, following the advice of allergologists and nutritionists.

Difficult for those who have allergies to any medicines, it is difficult to choose a safe medication in the treatment of any other diseases. The best prevention for most Allergy sufferers is diet and hygiene. Important preventive measures against allergies is the cleanliness of the premises, getting rid of and woolen duvets, feather pillows, they can be changed for products made of synthetic fabrics.

It is desirable to exclude the contact with animals, to eliminate mold in homes. The use of special insecticidal agents will eliminate the mites that live in upholstered furniture. If you are allergic to cosmetic products before selecting it is advisable to conduct a test event and if they don't fit to abandon their use.

Medication expiration date, which is exhausted, must be thrown out. Prevention of allergies includes ways to prevent the primary manifestations and relapse prevention, if you know what allergen causes the disease. Health care is the primary goal of every person, if You are susceptible to this disease are advised to carefully comply with all conditions precluding its development.