Causes, symptoms, types and diagnosis of arthritis
is that the joints are affected symmetrically. They become swollen and inflamed. The pain is worse at night, closer to awakening. In the second half of the day, it almost completely disappears. At the beginning of the development of the disease the person is often saved from discomfort by exercise. But the more advanced the disease, the less effective this method becomes. Once arthritis will strike the small joints, it will be larger, will form the characteristic nodes. They are small dense formations localized at the bending place of the joints. Throughout the illness the person experiences a General malaise, poor appetite, weakness. During periods of exacerbation observed increase in body temperature. Sometimes joining symptoms such as numbness of the upper and lower extremities, chest pain during breathing, inflammation of the salivary glands, as well as photophobia and pain in the eyes;
Infectious arthritis is an acute onset with typical signs of intoxication. The body temperature rises to high values, the disease is accompanied by chills, headache and muscle pain. Sometimes, you may experience nausea with vomiting, but this symptom is more characteristic for children of younger age. The joint that is affected, it swells, its form changing. The pain is worse during movement and may radiate to the nearby body part. Man tries to take that position in which it is easier to endure the discomfort. Leather heated around the sore joint. If people of retirement age the symptoms are blurred, the children they will appear brighter. The disease develops rapidly; Gouty attack often finds a person at night. To give impetus to the disease can either eating large amounts of meat or alcohol. In most cases, affects the first joints of both big toes. But sometimes the disease affects the knee or even elbow. To the inflamed place, it is impossible to touch, as the person experiences severe pain that is accompanied by swelling and redness of the skin. Body temperature is normal, the bout is over as suddenly as it had begun. The total duration of the attack of gout a few days;
Psoriatic arthritis is characterized by gradual progression of the disease, swelling in the affected area and a local increase in temperature. On the skin and scalp appear red spots, which cause human discomfort in the form of itching and flaking. In parallel, also affects the nailplate, they begin to split. To suffer from this type of arthritis any joint, but is more often affected fingers. However, they thicken and resemble sausages. Pain in the initial stages of development of the disease is not manifested, and if present, only in the morning;
Osteoarthritis is that the joints get sick very slowly and gradually, as the disease progresses. Also a characteristic feature is the crunch. Amazed at how the limb joints and spine; Traumatic arthritis develops in the type of osteoarthritis. The symptoms are the same – the pain, swelling and crunching in the place where the inflammatory process has begun.
Causes of arthritisAlthough the exact cause of arthritis is still not defined, some physicians claim that the cause of arthritis can also be infection, trauma or Allergy. But in addition, arthritis may be caused by metabolic disorders, diseases of the nervous system or even just a vitamin deficiency. The most common cause of infectious disease remain.
The impaired immunity leads to the development of persistent arthritis and joint damage. Autoimmune arthritis can occur after infections, but the germs themselves are only indirectly responsible for the disease. Pathogenesis occurs as a result of a failure in the immune system of the body: the immune system begins to attack the cells affected and changed by the infection. First, suffer his hands, and then all other joints. And if the person does not receive appropriate treatment, he may become an invalid for life.
Depending on the variety and origin, we can distinguish the following causes of arthritis:
- Infection, when inside the body penetrate harmful bacteria, fungi or viruses. Against this background, activates natural protection called the immune system. But the malfunction of a substance designed to deal with pathogenic organisms, begin to destroy healthy cells and attack the joints;
- Different kinds of joint injuries are also often the cause of the disease;
- Professional sports or constant excessive load on the joints can cause arthritis. For example, the ankles suffer the basketball players, the wrist – in tennis, the joints of the fingers – massage therapists;
- Excess body weight;
- Diseases of the nervous system;
- Failures in the endocrine system. In particular, hormonal changes in a woman's body during the entry into menopause;
- Genetic predisposition;
- Avitaminosis and malnutrition;
- The abuse of alcohol;
Insect bites (in contact with the biological poison into the joint cavity);
The degree of arthritis
The disease is more severe, the farther we went the pathological process. To determine the progression of arthritis, usually distinguished several degrees. Each of them has its own characteristics. To understand exactly at what stage the disease is only possible using x-rays.
1 the degree of arthritis
The initial stage (1 degree) can often occur completely asymptomatic, it is characterized by infection of the body.
Signs of arthritis that you should pay attention yourself:
- Some stiffness. Especially easy to observe similar manifestations in the mornings. Person is difficult to perform such a basic action like turning the water tap or gas valve. In medicine even there is such term as "symptom gloves" when in the hands and fingers is observed inactivity;
- If you suffer from ankle joint, suspected onset of illness will help this feature, as the inability to put a foot in familiar shoes. She becomes unusually tight. This gives you the opportunity to notice the presence of edema, which could not be ignored. When attempting flexion and extension of the ankle joint the person can experience pain. The feeling is not constant, occur periodically. However, they are already at this stage can lead to the fact that the patient often feels unwell and extreme fatigue;
- If a person suffers from psoriatic arthritis, the pain will occur mostly at night, disappearing by morning;
- When the disease affects the shoulder or the knee joint, the unpleasant feelings quickly pass, so the person often withdraws them to excessive fatigue due to increased load, and age;
- Arthritis in the initialthe stage is almost always detected in young patients, since signs of disease in children lies in the fact that usually mobile kids begin to abandon the run, cease to participate in mobile games, falling while walking;
- If the person is at this stage refers complaints to the doctor, the disease treatment is successful. Conducted x-ray examination shows that there are signs of inflammation of the joint.
2 the degree of arthritisSecond degree disease is characterized by early pathological processes, which are expressed in the appearance of the erosions on the bone.
The tissues of the joints continues to shrink in addition, signs of arthritis in the second degree are:
- The appearance of swelling around the affected joint that are difficult not to pay attention. If the fingers, during the Commission of their movements you can hear a distinct crunch, more closely resembling the cod;
- When the affected knee joint, arthritis of 2 degrees makes itself felt flushed and hot skin around the sore spot. Unpleasant sensations disturb the person stronger, more pronounced in the morning;
In addition to crunching and swellingin arthritic ankle joint there is pain, she appears in the night hours;
- Arthritis of the hip joint stage 2 it is often difficult to diagnose. This is because the pain can give in the knee, forcing him to limp while walking;
- Understand that arthritis affected shoulder joint, 2 stage is not so problematic as in the case of coxitis. In addition to basic features, it is hard for someone to raise their hand to get highly lying items;
- The disease is caused by gout, manifested by pain in the night hours;
If the cause of the disease was psoriasis, that patient is included in the 2nd stage of the arthritis, will torment swelling, localized on the big toes of the hands and feet. This is because it is in such places there is an accumulation of uric acid salts. The appearance of swelling with arthritis of a different nature due to the fact that in the affected joint produces a great amount of synovial fluid. This is a natural reaction of organism on inflammation, particularly rheumatic arthritis;
- The majority of patients it is at this stage for the first time, dare to visit a doctor.
Grade 3 arthritis
Third degreethe disease is characterized by the following features:
- X-ray examination shows severe deformity of the affected joint;
- Often the person at this stage assign a disability;
- Mobility is limited, the patient may find it difficult to move around if the damaged lower torso;
- Hand movements are performed with great difficulty. The patient becomes difficult to perform even the most basic actions to care for themselves. The hands are symmetrically affected;
- Pain pursues him, even when he is at rest;
- Due to muscle spasm caused by pain of the limb are fixed in an incorrect position. This ultimately leads to greater deformation of the joints.
4 the degree of arthritis
Last, 4 degree, characterized by the fact that the changes in bones and joints, become irreversible.
Features of this stage of the disease the following:
- Arthritis of the ankle joint leads to the fact that the patient is unable to move independently;
- With the defeat of the knee joint are formed around the muscle contracture;
- The lack of mobility in the joint due to the formation within it of adhesions is the result of arthritis, struck the hip of the leg. Doctors call such as fibrous or bony ankylosis;
- The pain becomes a constant companion of man. Its intensity makes the patient constantly taking painkillers.
Types of arthritisIf you have a sore only one joint, it is called monoartrit. But, unfortunately, more common arthritis – a disease of several joints. Arthritis develops quickly or with a sudden pain, in this case it is called acute, or gradually, then this is a chronic arthritis. Several varieties of arthritis, in medicine there are about ten.
Each type of disease has its own characteristics and causes:
Infectious or purulent arthritis develops due to ingestion of the organism infection, causing inflammation. There are primary and secondary pathology. Cause the first kind of arthritis most oftenbecomes wound, and the second is the penetration of infection from the blood or adjacent tissues. This type can be attributed to gonococcal, gonococcal, tuberculous, dysenteric, chlamydial, viral, post-streptococcal arthritis;
Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting connective tissues and joints in erosive-destructive type. This arthritis can sometimes spread to internal organs. In rheumatoid arthritis in 70% of cases occurs the disability of the patient. This is a very serious disease with not well understood etiology, mostly it occurs in people in middle and older age (40-50 years), women three times more often than men;
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, which bears the title "still disease" is a disease that affects children under the age of 16. The causes are unknown, the nature of the disease – a chronic, continually progressive. Some patients also suffer internal organs, leading to disability and sometimes death of the child;
Gouty arthritis develops as a result of deposits of uric acid which gathers in the glenoid cavity. Uric acid is not excreted from the body, does not dissolve in the blood, and kristallizuetsya and builds up around joints that causes pain and inflammation;
Osteoarthritis is degenerative-destructive. The gradual breakdown of cartilage causes amplified pain, then changing the shape of the joint, bone spurs appear. The disease is dangerous because when her bones and cartilage undergoing destruction, to recover will not be able;
Arthritis caused by pre-existing injury is called "traumatic". The damaged joint can long time does not bother humans. Pain and swelling that occurs immediately after injury, wears off after a certain time, and it can be assumed that this will all end. However, after a few years, the joint can again become inflamed and start to hurt, this will be the destruction of bone tissue. The only thing you can do to avoid this disease is to be very careful and try not to get hurt, but if it happened to conduct adequate treatment;
Articular rheumatism is a chronic disease of connective tissue with a primary lesion of the heart and joints. Etiology is also unclear asthe causes of rheumatoid arthritis;
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative-dystrophic disease of joints in which there is primary damage to the cartilage with subsequent inflammatory reaction, so it is often called, artrose-arthritis. The disease is less dangerous to life than rheumatoid arthritis, but osteoarthritis among the diseases of joints the most common and undermines the health of millions of people around the world.
Depending on the kind of arthritis, there are certain risk groups of people who have the highest probability to one or another of its form:
- From osteoarthritis often affects people that are over-straining your joints. For example, teachers, salesmen, surgeons, and barbers are at risk of getting osteoarthritis of the spine. The players are more likely to suffer hip joints, in boxers – the joints of the hands. This can be attributed to those who is a supporter of Smoking, and also people with excess body weight;
Gouty arthritis to a greater extent at risk for men over the age of 65 years. This also includes people with high blood pressure, suffering from overweight, excessive alcohol consumption, as well as those who have renal dysfunction;
- To purchase rheumatoid arthritis have higher risk in women, and the people in the family who has already observed the case of the development of this disease;
If we talk about the people most frequently affected by infectious arthritis, this group includes those who have a diagnosis of HIV or gonorrhea. Often, infectious arthritis torturing people with oncological diseases, diabetes mellitus and lupus erythematosus;
- From traumatic arthritis are the most affected professional athletes. Regularly produced micro-cracks in the joints leads to that they become inflamed.
Diagnosis of arthritisIn order to accurately diagnose and determine the kind of disease requires a comprehensive approach that includes examination, obtaining laboratory data and instrumental methods of diagnosis.
If you have symptoms of arthritis you need to visitdoctors such as traumatology, rheumatology, infection disease doctor, TB doctor and a dermatologist. Each of the specialists will conduct a patient interview, during which will be collected a detailed clinical history. After the oral examination the doctor will examine the affected joint, check it for sensitivity, will determine the degree of mobility and muscle tone. Only after this, the patient will be sent to the laboratory for completion of required tests.
Specific blood counts the doctor will be able to put the preliminary diagnosis:
- General blood analysis is done in order to determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). If the disease is in the acute stage, the rate will be raised. In bacterial arthritis increases the number of white blood cells, and in allergic – eosinophils;
- Biochemical analysis of blood is done in order to determine the level of uric and sialic acids (increase is characteristic of arthritis caused by gout) as well as FibroGen (which indicates inflammation);
Immunological parameters will give the possibility to suspect rheumatoid arthritisif elevated rheumatoid factor, the number of antinuclear and other antibodies, and circulating immune complexes.
As instrumental methods arthritis used the following diagnostic techniques:
- Conducting x-ray examination, sometimes from several perspectives: direct, lateral and oblique. This is the main approach to determine the stage of arthritis, and its varieties. X-ray helps to see the damage of joints, inflammatory processes, affecting the bone tissue, possible neoplasm, and degenerative changes;
- Diagnostic ultrasound is a complementary method in determining this disease. Most often, ultrasound is used to examine the degree of damage of large joints: shoulder, knee, elbow;
- Computed tomography allows you to see the joint in several sections, both transversely and longitudinally. Also with this method you can determine the condition of the soft tissues;
- MRI gives a clear picture. Using this method, you most consider in detail the condition of the bone structures and soft tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging is more often used in case if there is damage to the intervertebral discs, neural structures, ligaments, etc.;
- Arthroscopy – invasive endoscopic method of diagnosis. Used to examine the condition of the knee joint. Sometimes during this study performed a biopsythe affected tissues, and joint fluid for future study;
- With contrast arthrography study the status of the cartilage and soft tissues surrounding the joint. Contraindications acute arthritis and sensitivity to iodine;
- Myelography allows you to examine the state of the spine and spinal cord and its nerve roots. Used in conjunction with a CT scan.
How to treat arthritis of the joints?The earlier you start treatment, the more effective it will be. This is because the first and second stage of the development of the disease is not characterized by a pronounced degree of deformation of the joints. Consider that therapy should be integrated, receiving medication alone will not lead to a complete cure of the disease. It is not necessary to self-medicate. If desired, you can use any folk remedy, but you must pre-consult with a specialist. Competently make treatment of arthritis can only be a rheumatologist.
Integrated therapy consists of the following steps:
- In infectious arthritis patient will be prescribed a course of antibiotics. They are selected based on sensitivity of the pathogen to a particular drug. It may be aminoglycosides, penicillins or cephalosporins. If the acute stage, the treatment will be carried out in a hospital. Sometimes short term requires immobilization of the limb and compliance with bed rest. If infectious arthritis has developed because of a failed endoprosthesis, the prosthesis should be removed. If the purulent arthritis, you will need artrotsentez carried out daily. If the arthritis is caused by a virus, it is advisable to use NSAIDs if the fungi are applied antimycotic agent;
- Relieve pain in any arthritis help various ointments, gels and creams based on NSAIDs (mostly diclofenac). If arthritis affects the joints of the hands or feet, to reduce inflammation by wearing products from the dog wool. This recommendation does not apply to the category of folk methods of treatment of the disease. Doctors often advise their patients to use such method;
- As the funds allocated for the regeneration of cartilage tissue, using drugs-chondroprotectors. Among them are Alflutop, Artra, Artradol, Glucosamine, etc.;
- Surgery. It is used in that case, if the joint is completely destroyed, or when antibiotics are not ableto cope with the inflammation. The diseased joint is removed and in its place put the prosthesis;
- Individually choose courses restorative massage, physiotherapy, mud therapy and other ancillary techniques.
We should also mention physiotherapy as a treatment method for arthritis.
Properly selected combination will help to ensure that:
- Will decrease pain;
- Will recover the bone tissue;
- Increase endurance diseased joints;
- Atrophied muscles back in tone.
For patients with arthritis developed by specialized complexes of therapeutic exercises, aimed at developing flexibility and strength. They are obligatory supplemented by aerobic exercise. Maybe some patients will think that such a load is too large for a person with a sore hip. However, it is not so. First, to start you should train during remission, and secondly, the complex is selected individually, taking into account the degree of joint damage. Regular classes give a striking effect.
You cannot treat arthritis without a competently composed diet.
To support painful joints, should be included in the diet of the following groups of products:
- Vegetables, roots, and fruit. All products are rich in crude fiber and vitamins. Heat treatment should be kept to a minimum;
- Milk and all its derivatives: sour cream, cheese, yogurt, fermented baked milk, etc.;
- A variety of grains;
- Fish, poultry and occasionally lean meats.
In fact, diet for arthritis does not cause special difficulties. But without limits it is impossible to do. To minimize or completely remove from your table have fatty meats, salt and sugar, and legumes, shellfish, organ meats and alcoholic beverages. It is obvious that limitations are not so many, but to observe them it is necessary. Often, in addition to the standard set of products doctors recommend vitamin complexes. But to choose and they should appoint a doctor.
For the successful treatment of arthritis it is important to control body weight. If you have extra pounds, then get rid of them is necessary in the first place. As with any treatment scheme will be ineffective in the case when the joints are subjected to excessive load.
Topic: treatment of arthritis
Of course, it is possible to use traditional methods, but must adhere to the important principle of doing no harm. Only in this case the arthritis treatment will be successful. Isto understand that rheumatoid arthritis to completely fail, but, following the advice of a doctor, to slow the progress of disease.
Statistics of arthritis
Symptoms different types of arthritis are more or less similar. Signs of arthritis are pain in inflamed area, redness, warmth over the inflamed joints, stiffness and difficulty of movement. You may have to encounter other troubles, such as fatigue, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, fever. In some cases, patients may face difficulties when walking and everyday self.
Men and women equally often suffer from this disease. Although it is common among adults, in some cases, young people are also susceptible to arthritis. In a recent statistics report says that more than 1.3 million Americans suffer from this disease, and most of them were women.
Various anti-inflammatory drugs are used to reduce inflammation and pain. It is best if treatment is to combine medication and physiotherapy. Reduce pain, swelling and inflammation can therapeutic massage. According to statistics, arthritis shortens life by about 10 years, but is rarely the direct cause of death. Today, unfortunately, no drugs that could completely cure rheumatoid arthritis.