Causes, symptoms and treatment of liver cysts
The content of the article:
Liver cyst is a pathological cavity newly formed in the liver, having a wall and contents in the form of a transparent liquid or jelly-like masses of yellow-green. The size of cysts in the liver and the structure of its walls are different and independent of the duration and mechanism of formation and location.
Cyst of the liver is referred to quite common diseases, according to medical examination this pathology can be found in 0.8% of the population, and on the basis of necropsy, the frequency of undetected cysts of the liver reaches 2 % of the total population. In men kitoobraznye in the liver are much less common than in women, usually reveal their ages from 30 to 50 years.
Cysts can be localized in different segments and lobes of the liver, to be on the surface and at depth. The most common cyst of the left lobe of the liver. Diameter of detected hepatic cysts varies from few millimeters to 25 centimeters, and in rare cases, growths can be large in size.
Cyst of the liver may be single or multiple. With a single form of the disease, the tumor is formed in one of the lobes of the organ. When the plural form of cysts can be located in one part of the liver and cover a third of the entire region.
Classified cysts of the liver in parasitic and separatornyi.Separatornyi cysts, in turn, are divided into true and false. About etiology are traumatic or inflammatory in nature, are often the result of surgical treatment of Echinococcus cyst or abscess of the liver.
This type of cyst in most cases has no obvious symptoms, therefore, detection often occurs by ultrasound or computed tomography. To the true cysts include tumors that occurred in utero. They are:
- solitary (with the cyst location right lobe of the liver, has a rounded education with a leg falling into the abdominal cavity);
- in the form of cystic (cyst the left and right lobes of the liver, caused by a mutation of genes);
- in testaferrata (congenital liver disease).
Parasitic liver cysts occur when the infection of human parasites from the animal. They come in twovarieties:
- hydatid (formed when ingested tapeworms);
- alveococcosis (due to destructive activities of worms).
Signs and symptoms of liver cysts
Clinically small cysts, both single and multiple, especially when located in different parts of body do not Express bright symptoms. As a rule, patients are not subject to any specific complaints.
Signs appear in cases when the cysts grow to large size or their number is greatly increased. The main symptoms in such cases are:
- aching and dull pain in the right side, near the navel and the epigastrium;
- the feeling of heaviness and pressure in the right hypochondrium and epigastric region;
- the appearance of nausea, vomiting (often after meals);
- bowel disorder;
Non-specific symptoms include:
- loss of appetite;
- the increase in sweating;
- shortness of breath;
- low-grade fever (in cases when the process of suppuration of the cyst contents);
- jaundice, hepatomegaly, dramatic weight loss, asymmetry of the abdomen (if the cyst attains enormous size).
In rare cases, identify the presence of cysts is possible by means of palpation, however, the main method of diagnosis are ultrasound and computed tomography.
To diagnose parasitic cysts need to conduct quite specific serology, as it will need analysis on echinococcosis cysts.
Causes of liver cysts
If the question of etiology of parasitic cysts of the liver have long been the main cause of contamination with the parasite, the formation of cysts aparasitemic still causes a lot of controversy. The reasons, according to scientists, can be varied:
- hyperplasia of hepatic bile ducts during embryogenesis, and further obstruction;
- pathology interlobular bile ducts;
- the use of hormones;
- various traumatic injuries, liver disease, surgery;
- inflammatory processes, progressing in the liver.
Treatment of cysts of the liver
The scheme of treatment of cysts of the liver is assigned after determining the type of neoplasm and accurate diagnosis using ultrasonic examination, the results of abdominal CT and MRI.
When the cyst of the liver and after its removal doctor canrecommend taking a variety of medicines that support the liver and strengthen the immune system. It is important to exercise taking these drugs strictly according to the specified schema, as the failure to observe the dosage and other nuances can seriously aggravate not only the liver but the entire body.
In most cases, treatment of cysts involves surgical intervention, as in the presence of aparasitemic cysts of large size there is a risk of rupture and, therefore, bleeding and infection. In addition, the progression of the cysts can lead to various disorders of the liver, atrophy and substitution of the hepatic parenchyma cystic formations.
When the diameter of the cyst does not exceed three centimeters, surgery is not considered, the only exception might be the case when that is fixed by the development of jaundice. If surgery is not indicated, the patient is subject to dispensary observation.
In all other situations, the presence of the tumor more than 5 cm recommended surgical removal of the cyst.
Removal of liver cysts (surgery)Health professionals divide all types of surgical treatment and removal of liver cysts in radical, palliative and conditionally radical.
Radical surgery for cysts of the liver is considered liver transplantation.
To palliative operations include:
- the opening and complete emptying of the cystic education;
- marsupialization of cyst (sewing the edges of the empty cysts to the walls of the wound);
Conditionally radical operations for cyst of the liver is considered to be:
- the elimination of the affected part of the body;
- husking cyst with its shells;
- excision of the walls of kitoobraznye.
There are also grading themselves indications for surgery in cysts of the liver. They are divided into relative, absolute and quasi-absolute.
Relative indications to consider:
- kitoobraznye large sizes (diameter from 5 to 10 cm);
- an isolated cyst 3-4 segments;
- recurrent kitoobraznye of the liver in those cases when the puncture treatment is ineffective.
Absolute indications include the presence of suppuration, rupture,bleeding.
- giant cyst of any location (at least 10 cm in diameter);
- kitoobraznye with a Central location in the gate of liver;
- the cyst with pronounced symptoms (digestive disorders, persistent pain, etc.).
Surgery followed by maintenance therapy. During this period, the doctors recommend a special diet and to pay attention to the body's immune system.
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Diet (nutrition) cyst in the liverIn the diagnosis of liver cysts after surgical removal is necessary to follow a strict diet in which from the diet excludes mandatory fatty, fried, salted, smoked and canned food. Also contraindicated to consume carbonated drinks, coffee, hot sauces, spices and condiments, sweet.
Since the liver adverse effects of lack of vitamins and different micronutrients every day is important to consume: foods rich in fiber, fruits and vegetables (carrot, parsnip, strawberry, beet, Jerusalem artichoke, etc.), herbs, sea-buckthorn, rose hips, fish, dairy products.
The basic principles of the diet for cyst of the liver:
- the diet should contain sufficient digestible complete protein (about 120 grams. pure protein);
- the quality and quantity of consumed fat (80 gr.) and carbohydrates (not more than 450 g.) you need to determine based on the condition of the patient and its physiological characteristics;
- food should be thoroughly cooked;
- meals should be frequent and be carried out in small portions;
- the average energy value of daily ration should be around 3000 calories.
The above-mentioned standards and principles of diet are generalized, therefore in the preparation of individual diet is essential to consult a doctor-dietitian.