What is pyelonephritis?
Pyelonephritis is the inflammation of the renal tubules and Cup-pelvis-plating system. In the later stages of the disease in the pathological process are also included the glomeruli and vessels. Pyelonephritis is widespread among the adult population (30-40 years), are mostly women.
– the number of the affected kidney (unilateral and bilateral pyelonephritis);
– according to etiology (primary and secondary pyelonephritis);
according to the method of infection in the body (hematogenous and ascending pyelonephritis);
– the extent of involvement of the urinary tract (non-obstructive and obstructive pyelonephritis).
Pyelonephritis can occur in acute and chronic forms. Acute pyelonephritis is interstitial, serous and purulent. Chronic pyelonephritis occurs in three phases: active, latent and remission. It can occur due to the acute form of the disease or occur primarily.
Causes of pyelonephritis
Causes pyelonephritis is more likely to be bacteria and viruses. The disease can be caused by coliform or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and so on. From the primary infectious focus in the body the bacteria enter into the kidneys, and if they violated the outflow of urine, venous or lymphatic outflow, a pathological process begins. Sometimes the organism infects and healthy body. Malicious organisms destroy the inner lining of blood vessels, causing inflammation.
The infection can reach the kidneys, and due to diseases of the urinary tract (urethritis, cystitis, stones in the urinary tract, nephroptosis).
The symptoms of pyelonephritisThe disease begins acutely. Among the symptoms most often present dull aching pain in the lower back, urination disorders due to intoxication in patients with fever (40 degrees), a fever, sweating, dry mouth, thirst, nausea and vomiting. General weakness is accompanied by loss of appetite, headache. Muddy urine, sometimes with blood.
Chronic pyelonephritis occurs with alternating periods of exacerbations and remissions. Characterized by a dull lower back pain, recurring fever. Oftenpyelonephritis combined with chronic glomerulonephritis.
Pyelonephritis leads to a number of serious complications, including syndrome of contracted kidney, renal failure, kidney abscess, urosepsis and hypertension.
The disease diagnosis is performed using clinical and biochemical blood and urine tests, x-ray, urography, renal biopsy.
Treatment of pyelonephritis
Treatment for pyelonephritis depends on its form, duration of disease, extent of kidney damage and possible complications. Acute pyelonephritis requires urgent treatment and hospitalization of the patient. Man is subject to constant medical, laboratory testing and ultrasound examinations. For treatment using antibiotic therapy, relieve inflammation, used antispasmodics, anticoagulants, and physical therapy. The affected kidney needs to restore the flow of urine and catheterization of the ureter. Sometimes pyelonephritis requires surgical intervention (if abscess of the kidney, the kidney carbuncle and other purulent forms). Also patients shown diet and herbal medicine.