Home / Disease / Disease - Polyps / Causes and symptoms polyps

Causes and symptoms polyps

Polyps represent benign abnormal growths of a rounded, oval or irregular shape, which are localized on the walls of hollow organs and act in their lumen. They are mounted on a broad basis, or have a stalk. Such growths may appear on the inner surface of all organs of the body with mucous membrane.

Most often, polyps occur in the following locations:

  • Intestines;
  • Stomach;
  • Uterus;
  • Gallbladder;
  • Bladder;
  • The cavity of the nose.

By themselves, these growths are not terrible, but sometimes they go into a malignant tumor. If a person has not observed any alarming symptoms, it does not mean that in the future polyp will not be reborn in the tumor. That's why, regardless of whether polyps cause discomfort, they should be treated conservatively or surgically removed.

The content of the article:

Polyps in the uterus

Polyps in the uterus are frequently diagnosed benign growths of the mucous membrane, which is usually caused by a serious hormonal disorders. They also appear in the background of a variety of inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs, e.g., cervicitis or cervical erosion. Besides, polyps often coexist with endometriosis. Postmenstrually bleeding is the main symptom of these growths. Signs of polyps include profuse uterine menstruation, or Vice versa, scanty irregular periods, and vaginal bleeding in the period of menopause. However, this pathology is sometimes observed in the normal menstrual cycle. Many patients complain of increasing pain during intercourse. It also happens that the polyps in the uterus do not indicate any symptoms.

For full diagnosis of uterine polyps use ultrasound examination, petrography and most informativemethod hysteroscopy. With these modern treatments, the gynecologist can easily assess the General condition of the polyp to determine its precise location and size. If growths appear on the background of inflammation, is sufficient to cure the source of infection to polyps disappeared without intervention. With the help of a hysteroscope can be performed major surgery to remove large growths, while complications will be minimal.

Treatment of polyps in the uterus is most often done by a surgical method, which involves scraping. Sometimes doctors use surgical and treatment through the introduction of modern drugs progesterone. Hormones contribute to the rapid shrinkage of the growths. However, it should be mentioned that the conservative method the risk of recurrence of polyps is very high.

Read more: polyps in the uterus – an innovative treatment and removal of cervical polyps: causes and symptoms

Polyps in the nose

Benign tumors such as polyps in the nose, it's most common in children under the age of 10 years. Nasal polyposis is the same as the adenoids. However, this pathology may occur in adults due to the strong growths of the mucous membrane of the pharyngeal tonsils. This fabric is designed to protect the human body from getting all kinds of bacteria and viruses.

The main reasons for the formation of nasal polyps following:

  • Repeatedly infectious diseases of ENT-organs;
  • The long absence of fresh air or systematic inhalation of harmful substances;
  • Malnutrition and vitamin deficiency;

  • Allergies and chronic sinusitis.

Frequent symptoms of nasal polyps are also rashes on the skin around the nose, inflammation of the inner lining of the sinuses, shortness of breath, trouble sleeping, traces of mucus in the throat, no taste, bad smell, snoring and chronic sinusitis. The majority of patients adenoids suffer from terrible headaches and constant runny nose with heavy nasal congestion. When small growths symptoms may not occur. And conservative treatment of infectious diseases and allergic reactions rarely leading to resorption of nasal polyps.

Treatmentnasal polyps surgical: usually the doctors are inclined to immediate surgical removal of such tumors. When polyps grow in large groups, are assigned a standard endoscopic surgery. To speed up healing, doctors recommend to do regular rinsing of the sinuses with sea salt. The preventive measures, the use of antiallergic agents and specific immunotherapy can prevent re-growth.

Read more: how dangerous is nasal polyps? Is it possible to cure without surgery? Symptoms surgery to remove nasal polyps

Endometrial polyps

Polyps of the endometrium of the uterus is a serious disease that can be characterized as the uncontrolled formation of multiple benign tumors. In these hyperplastic processes is the expansion of the base of the endometrium, in other words, only the inner layer of the uterus. This disease occurs most often in women aged 35 to 55 years. In older age, after menopause, morbidity rates are low. The uterine endometrial polyp has a body and a leg. It consists of epithelial cells. The growths come in different forms, depending on their structures and buildings.

Experts are divided uterine endometrial polyps.

  • Glandular;
  • Glandular-fibrous;
  • Fibrous;
  • Adenomatous.

In women of early reproductive age are usually observed neoplasms of the glandular structure. Whereas in patients of Mature age are diagnosed with either fibro or adenomatous polyps. It should be noted that glandular fibroid growth is characteristic for any age.

Possible causes of polyps uterine endometrium relate hormonal disorders, trauma of the uterus, prolonged contact of the mucosa with a lippes loop, miscarriage and frequent abortions, births with incomplete removal of the placenta, reduced immunity, endocrine dysfunction, extragenital diseases, psychological factors, and chronic inflammation of the pelvis.

Symptoms of endometrial polyps can be very diverse:

  • Menstrual cycle;
  • Cramping pain in the abdomen;
  • White, yellowish or brown discharge from the genital tract;
  • Intermenstrual bleeding;
  • Pain and bleeding during or after sexual intimacy;
  • the Inability of conception or miscarriage.

But quite often, this pathology does not manifest itself. Growths of small size can be detected only on ultrasound examination in scrapings of the endometrium or a hysteroscopy.

The main method of treatment of uterine endometrial polyposis is considered surgery. Under the control of a hysteroscope specialist makes the removal of polyps and a thorough curettage of the uterine mucosa. Depending on the form of growth and age of the patient, is assigned to further treatment and postoperative recovery. It should be mentioned that after curettage of the glandular and glandular-fibrous tumors shows the required hormonal treatment to regulate the menstrual cycle.

Read more: Glandular-fibrous endometrial polyp – treatment, removal, causes and symptoms

Rectal polyps

Polyp of the rectum is a benign glandular neoplasm which legs is attached to the rectal wall. Outgrowths are often formed in small groups. This intestinal pathology is found not only in adults but also in children. In hereditary polyposis of the rectum growths in most cases are prone to malignant form. According to modern medical research, middle-aged men suffer from this disease at least one and a half times more often than women. Early detection and treatment of these tumors allows to expect a positive Outlook.

Numerous rectal polyps can be classified as follows:

  • Number – single, multiple and diffuse;
  • On the morphological structure – glandular, villous, glandular-villous, juvenile, and hyperplastic fibrous.
  • Pseudopolyps – can be distinguished as a separate group, when there is a proliferation of the mucous membrane due to chronic inflammation.

The alleged causes of rectal polyps are chronic inflammation of the mucosa of the intestinal wall, the stagnation of feces and microtrauma caused by frequent constipation. Along with this, the growth of polyps contributes to the adverse impact of the ecological situation, improper nutrition, physical inactivity and alcohol abuse. You can also note the dependence of polyposis fromdiverticular disease and vascular pathologies. Modern experts do not rule out a genetic predisposition to polyposis of the intestine.

The severity of symptoms of polyps of the rectum depends on the number, size, morphological structure, location and nature of malignant growths. Typically, these tumors are found accidentally when a full endoscopic examination of the bowel. Very large tumors can cause discomfort, bloody discharge from the anus, the sense of presence of a foreign body in the rectum and tenderness in the lower abdomen and pelvic region. Serious violations of peristaltic activity of the gastrointestinal tract often contribute to the emergence of not only constipationbut also diarrhea.

Diagnosis of intestinal polyposis includes regular examination by a proctologist. Early detection will help to prevent the malignant growth and will guarantee successful removal of the tumor.

Treatment of polyps surgery – because they are almost not subject to reduction with conservative methods, they are simply removed. Those polyps that are low, are operated transonline. In addition, small growths can be removed with a successful in eradicating during a particular endoscopic procedure. Very large growths removed only in parts. After resection of all polyps should be subjected to mandatory histological examination for signs of malignancy.

Read more: a Polyp in the rectum – causes, symptoms, treatment and removal

Polyps in the gallbladder

Growing polyps in gallbladder – a pathological neoplasms of benign character, which appear on the mucous membrane. Themselves growths are not dangerous to humans, but on average in 15% of cases, they flow in the malignant tumors without any symptoms.

The most common types of this pathology are:

  • Cholesterol polyps;
  • Inflammatory polyps;
  • Adenoma of the gallbladder;
  • Papilloma of the gallbladder.

The symptoms of gallbladder polyps are usually erased, patients almostno complaints other than discomfort in the right hypochondrium. In rare cases there is intolerance of a certain type of food. Often the polyps in the gall bladder of a person is detected completely by chance at ultrasound. To confirm the diagnosis can assign endoscopic ultrasonography.

Treatment of polyps in the gallbladder, according to modern doctors, the conservative can not be relevant only surgery. With extensive clinical manifestations, the entire gallbladder is subject to mandatory removal, regardless of the size of existing polyps. If growths in the gallbladder have larger than 1 cm in diameter, and several of them, the authority should be immediately removed because of the risk of malignant transformation.

After the control of ultrasonic examination the doctor make the decision about the removal of small polyps. The growths on the stem and with a diameter less than 9 mm should be monitored every six months for two years. After this time, if the tumor increased its size, an ultrasound is carried out once a year. In the case of growth, the polyp should be operated. Growth without legs is under the control of the physician once a quarter.

The standard operation for resection of polyps bile is a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. With a unique endoscopic technology to remove just the growths, while maintaining a functioning gallbladder.

Read more: Polyps in the gallbladder – what to do? Treatment and surgery

Polyps of the cervical canal

Special benign tumors – polyps of the cervical canal, mainly originate from the columnar epithelium of the endocervix. The causes of these growths is not clear. As a rule, this pathology is diagnosed in patients over the age of 35-37 years. Many experts believe that the basis for the development of cervical polyps are age-related changes in the body, hormonal disorders and various stress factors and reduced immunity. It should also be noted that a favorable backdrop for the growths can serve as mechanical injury of the external OS uteri. Often this kind of polyposis occurs in combination with erosion of the cervix, and herpes genitals.

Symptoms of cervical polyps is quite pronounced: the polyps grow in the lumen of the cervix, with contact bleeding and discharges. This does not exclude a mild nagging pain. Diagnosis of this pathologyincludes not only the gynecological examination and colposcopy, but also cervicoscopy and histological analysis of a single scraping from the cervix.

According to the histological type of the polyps of the cervical canal is divided into:

  • Glandular;
  • Adenomatous;
  • Glandular-fibrous;
  • Angiomatous;
  • And fibrous.

In structure such growths are:

  • Multilayer;
  • Cylindrical;
  • Flat;
  • High cylindrical;
  • With metaplasticity changes;
  • With immature epithelium.

Removing cervical polyps is done by unscrewing the legs of the polyp and the complete cauterization of its base, and then the whole scraping of cervical mucus. Usually surgery followed by restoring hormonal therapy.

Read more: the Polyp of the cervical canal – causes, removal and treatment

Polyps in the stomach

Polyps in the stomach is a small protruding growths on the surface of the mucosa. Its form these tumors on a short, wide legs resemble small mushrooms, the size of which does not exceed three inches. All benign gastric polyps are glandular structure. Most often they develop due to chronic gastritis and other inflammations. Gastric tumors are divided into groups on several grounds: clinical, pathological, radiological, etiological and pathogenic.

Polyps in the stomach may be:

  • Number – single, multiple and diffuse (15 pieces);
  • At the etiology – inflammatory, adenomatous, hyperplastic, and neoplastic (prone to malignant form);
  • According to the structure – villous, tubular or mixed.

Gastric polyps occur almost asymptomatic. They develop no discomfort and can be detected accidentally during x-ray examination. In rare cases, patients complain of pain in the epigastric region. By overlapping the exit of the stomach there is vomiting. When a fairly large polyp begins ato exercise, you may experience a bitter aftertaste in your mouth, and the feces and the vomit will be traces of blood. In case of serious pathologies can not be avoided paleness, weakness and cramping pain when the growths zaselyalsya and enter the duodenum.

The causes of these benign tumors can be hereditary factor in chronic gastritis and other inflammations of the stomach. In addition, people over the age of 50-55 years the risk of developing stomach polyps increases significantly. No matter what it is any such growths – in any case they testify to the malfunction of the entire digestive system.

Treatment of all gastric polyps is based on the systematic control, special diets and surgical resection. The necessary control must be carried out using endoscopic and x-ray equipment. Accurate adherence to the prescribed diet will significantly retard the development of unfavorable process. The question of the necessity of surgical intervention is decided in each individual case, depending on the severity of the disease. The basic method of treatment in modern medicine is considered for endoscopic polypectomy.

Read more: Polyps in stomach is it dangerous? Symptoms and treatment

Polyps in the intestines

Polyps in the intestine represent a serious danger. They grow on the intestinal walls, blocking the lumen. These tumors as hamartomatous polyps grow from the normal tissue of the mucosa. Youth are growths in the colon, adenomatous polyps are typical optional appendage. The subsequent degeneration of every kind of intestinal pathology depends on the size and etiology of sprawl. The cause of polyps are considered to be only chronic inflammation.

Symptoms patients with small polyps in the intestine are virtually absent. Sometimes in the presence of large villous adenomas in the feces of patient of significant admixture of mucus. In highly advanced cases, spotting. Large growths can simulate intestinal obstruction, which is accompanied by cramping pain. In addition, may begin anal itching or prolonged constipation. Because of the large losses of protein when large polyps in the bowel are often diagnosed and the violation of homeostasis.

Diagnosis of this dangerous diseaseincludes sigmoidoscopy and, if necessary, a finger examination of the rectum. The combination of diagnostic methods allows to identify the and other related diseases.

Treatment of intestinal polypsthat are on a thin stalk provides the standard loopback electrocoagulation, which are held during the colonoscopy. The growths with a broad base excised. Most benign tumors are easy to detect and remove with the help of modern colonoscope. All resected tumors should be investigated for the presence of malignant cells.

If the size of the growths does not produce endoscopic removal, localize them through surgery. Abdominal surgery is conducted and when the removal of malignant tumors. For resection of a polyp, degenerated in early cancer, using modern endoscopic equipment, it is necessary to consider the individual characteristics of each specific tumor.

After removal of polyps in the intestine should be regularly seen by a doctor to avoid recurrence of the disease. And after 50 years every person is recommended to undergo annual preventive examinations of the intestine to the early detection of cancer.