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Immunology is the science that deals with the study of the reactions of the human body for a variety of antigens, explains the mechanisms of origin and transmission, for a variety of immune pathology, develops methods of prevention, to combat them.
Immunology is developing at a rapid pace due to constant mutations of pathological microorganisms and the need to provide adequate assistance to the human immune system. Furthermore, immunology is directly involved in the development of vaccinations and vaccines.
Who is the immunologist?
The specifics of the doctor-the immunologist is to provide assistance to patients with problems of the immune system. The doctor involved in the identification, control development and influence on an organism of various diseases, developing specific therapeutic schemes and prevention measures, based on the characteristics of the problem.
In the work of immunologists is to monitor the timely administration of vaccines among the population. Immunologist – a doctor, very popular in the modern world, as above all it deals with the treatment of people suffering from allergies and immunodeficieny States.
Read more: Causes, symptoms and treatment of Allergy
What does an immunologist?Immunology is not only practitioners in clinics.
They also are active in research activities in various research centers, because immunology is a branch of medicine that has many child branches, among which are:
- General immunology that deals with the study of immunity at the cellular and molecular level, the importance of immune mechanisms in individual human development.
- Immunopathology, which is the scope of its activities is research, development and implementation of therapeutic techniques for people who already have problems with the immune system.
- Immunology of infection. This branch deals with the study of the immune response in response to the penetration of infectious agents.
- Immunokine has been studying the immune system on a chemical level.
- Non-infectious immunology, respectively, studying the response of the immune system of the body to noninfectious antigens.
- Immunology Allergy, engaged in the study of allergic diseases and their relationship with human immune system.
- Transplant immunology, which is devoted to the study of human immunity within the transplant of organs from donors.
- Immunology radiation. Priority given field of science – the restoration of the functioning of the immune system after radiation therapy.
- Embryonaltoxikologie. This branch deals with the study of immune incompatibility of woman and nurtured her child.
What disease cures immunologist?
- Rhinitis and conjunctivitis that occurs as a response to the ingestion of pollen: grasses, trees, flowers. Such diseases are seasonal.
- Rhinitis and conjunctivitis year-round, that is, those who are allergic to home dust, animal dander, etc.
- Asthma bronchial.
- Urticaria in acute and recurrent form.
- An allergic reaction to exposure to cold.
- Itchy skin with chronic.
- Allergies food, drugs, insect bites, contact.
- All types of neurodermatitis: seborrheic, atopic, eczema of the limbs.
- Chronic cough of uncertain etiology.
- Occurring at intervals shorter than 6 times a year, bacterial and viral infections.
- Regularly recurrent pustular skin lesions – styes, boils, pyoderma, acne, etc.
- Chronic obstructive bronchitis.
- All chronic and recurrent infections of the respiratory tract and ENT organs: otitis, rhinitis, sinusitis.
- Herpes infection is prone to recurrence.
- The development of secondary immunodeficiency on the background of chronic diseases: hepatitis, psoriasis, papillomatosis, etc.
- Feverish conditions with unclear etiologies.
- Lymphadenitis and lymphadenopathy, the cause of which is not clear.
- The chronic fatigue syndrome.
id="part4"To visit a specialist is required when there has been a deterioration, and the reasons explaining this fact is not found. It is possible that another doctor independently will direct the patient on consultation to the immunologist.
The patient should be alerted the next state of the body:
- Body temperature is kept at a subfebrile level for a long period of time (3 to 7 days), and the explanation for this fact.
- People suffering from chronic fatigue, it comes fatigue, even after a short mental or physical activity.
- Has trouble sleeping type insomnia or, by contrast, pursues constant drowsiness.
- In the body and joints felt an ache.
- Colds are often repeated and protracted nature.
- The fact that recurrent herpetic infection.
- Purulent infection of the oral cavity and nasopharynx.
- Disorders in the gastrointestinal tract.
- A blood test indicates the presence of inflammation.
- The frequent recurrence of any disease.
- The lack of receptivity of the organism for treatment – antiviral, antibacterial, antimycotic.
What methods of diagnosis uses an immunologist?
- A comprehensive study of immune and interferon status.
- Performing skin tests: run scratch tests for and print test. Allergens can be a variety of food, household, epidermal and other.
- Fence scraping from the skin of the auditory canal, tongue and tonsils for further cytological examination and identification of fungal microorganisms.
- For contact dermatitis allergic nature allerest carried out to determine the presence of sensitive to certain types of allergens, of which there are more than 40.
- The implementation of bacterial culture of blood with respect to its sterility, in addition, seeding can be taken from the skin, throat, ear, abscesses, etc. In this case, revealed the causative agent and its sensitivity to specific drugs.
- The implementation of diagnostic PCR and serological tests, which allow high accuracy to determine the subtypevirus, bacteria or other pathogen.
- On the different panels of allergens identify specific lgE, which required the abstraction of blood serum. Determination of total lgE.
- The test braking natural emigration of leukocytes in the oral cavity with different drugs: NSAIDs, anti-bacterial drugs. Local anesthetics and sulfonamides. In addition, antiseptic agents, local actions can be made application, run scratch tests for, intradermal and oral tests.
- Spirometry computer, which allows the study of external respiratory function tests.
The passage of those or other diagnostic techniques allows more accurate diagnosis and prescribe the necessary treatment. In addition, the doctor may recommend the patient undergo ultrasound, ECG, CT or MRI. Sometimes you need other doctor, such as dermatologist, allergist, ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, etc.
Why is there a problem with the immune system and how to avoid themDisorders in the immune system are often the consequence of a modern lifestyle. Affected by adverse environmental conditions, physical inactivity, stay in a dusty, polluted, confined areas. Therefore, the immune system needs support. (See also: causes, symptoms and ways of raising immunity)
However, you should not rely on any particular tool, having which you will be able to get rid of the problems with the immune system. Drugs exist, but they should appoint a doctor. Only he, based on the diagnosis, will be able to find a suitable immunomodulator, recommend dosage and to determine the duration of the therapeutic course.
Unreasonable receiving immunomodulators can provoke an autoimmune disease and further exacerbate already existing problems. So the self in this case is unacceptable.
If immune disorders are minor, it is sufficient to eliminate adverse impacts and make preparations with microelements, vitamins and antioxidants in the composition. However, to make a conclusion about the real state of the immune system can only be a specialist.