The content of the article:
Speech therapy refers to teaching science that investigates varieties of speech defects, the nature of their origin, mechanisms, characteristics and symptoms of speech disorders.
In accordance with the available data on the nature and manner of occurrence of speech disorders, develop corrective methods to overcome them and prevention methods, which are based on sredstvenno learning correct pronunciation. Speech therapy is closely connected not only with pedagogical theory, but also otolaryngologia and psycholinguistics.
The essence of the activities of the speech therapist
Speech therapist specializiruetsya on addressing speech pathologies in children and in adults. The essence of its activities is to explain the production of sounds, learning the correct pronunciation, skills of education words, rules of competent presentation of thought and perception, vocabulary.
Elimination of defects is due to a specific effect on the organs of speech with the help of special exercises and breathing exercises, which occurs due to the correction of speech errors, getting rid of stuttering, stammering while talking.In addition, the work of the speech therapist uses different types of exercises, memorization of the foregoing information, the consolidation of the results obtained in the course of the work. These classes encourage the development of attention, thinking and memory.
Speech therapist must have some knowledge in psychology, since it is focused on working with children and with patients who have suffered Psihologicheskaya, the consequence of which is a speech disorder.Vosstanovleniia in such patients largely depends on the competent approach by the specialist.
What cures a speech therapist?The work of the speech therapist aimed at getting rid of multiple pathologies of the vocal apparatus:
- Athos – the violation of the sonority of speech retained the ability to pronounce sounds in a whisper;
- Dysphonia– disorders of voice is characterized by hoarseness, scratchiness, hoarseness.
- Dyslalia - violation of pronunciation of certain sounds, characterized by lisping, Burr;
- Logoneurosis - stuttering;
- Tehillim, bradylalia - violating a speed of pronunciation;
- Dyslexia – difficulties in learning the skills of reading and writing;
- Rhinolalia - nasal;
- Speech disorders characteristic of people with hearing problems;
- Speech disorders arising after injuries or operations.
The process of treatment from a speech therapist
Methods of correction of speech pronunciation in children and adults differ.
Elimination of defects of speech in toddlers is held in the form of a game, and the choice of methodology depends on the nature of the violations and determined individually for each case. It is very important to determine the root cause of the disease. This may be the wrong attitude to the child by adults - incorrect production of speech (intentional "baby talk"), stress, congenital abnormalities or infectious diseases. Create a kid-friendly terms is the key to successful recovery. And in this case, the support of parents plays a major role.
In the treatment of speech defects in adults it is also important to know what causes contributed to development of speech problems, how they affected the voice box. So, for recovery after surgery of the larynx, used the method of "esophageal speech" - the production of sounds via the esophagus.
In disorders caused by stroke, paralysis uses an integrated approach for a phased, gradual restoration of voiced speech.
Integrated treatment involves a series of different exercises, massages and other procedures, the implementation of which should be carried out regularly. An important condition to achieve the result in this case is patience and diligence on the part of the therapist and the patient. Only joint efforts will lead to positive changes.
In some cases it is necessary to go to a speech therapist?
Besides all the above, there are the peculiarities of the age of the child, if any deviation from which should be alarmed and consult a speech therapist:
- In the year the child must pronounce at least a few words, to understand the basic request type give or take, to understand the praise or blame for bad behavior, disobedience.
- 1 year and 4 months child uses intended the words mom and dad.
- Two years maliseet to identify the parts of the body, to comply with the requests of adults.
- At the age of 2.5 guddeti must capture the difference in words, big, small, adult, child.
- 3 years understands and teaches small poems, tales, can tell your age, surname, name and patronymic, count to ten, know colors.
- 4 hodurenas he calls a color, able to focus and listen to long stories and tales and retell them.
When to go to a speech therapist for an adult?
The view that adults do not need help of speech therapy, is unfounded.
On the contrary, there are various indications for visiting a specialist, namely:
- Speech disorders after suffering seizures, stroke, paralysis of the facial muscles or muscles of the larynx.
- Speech disorders as the result of emotional turmoil.
- The operation to remove the larynx, the vocal cords can also lead to the need of the assistance of a speech therapist.
- Many adults with pronunciation, Lisp, stutter or Burr, believing that the speech is already incurable. But it is misleading. There are many ways to fix these flaws.
To correct the speech defects you can use a combination of several techniques such as massage, physiotherapy, acupuncture, taking drugs to raise muscle tone.