mammologom nazyvaut specialista, zanimaushegosya diagnostirovaniem, lecheniem i profilaktikoj razlichnyh zabolevanij molochnyh zhelez u zhenshin: mastopatii, kisty, adenomy, mastita, raka. oficialno v rossii, v stranah sng i blizhnego zarubezhya specialnosti mammologane sushestvuet. lecheniem patologij molochnyh zhelez zamautsya vrachi, chya deyatelnost napravlena na issledovanie i terapiu vospalitelnyh i rakovyh zabolevanij grudi, soprovozhdaushih ih simptomov i shozhih sostoyanij.dannyh specialistov nazyvaut onkologami.
takim obrazom, onkolog-mammolog specializiruetsya na problemah, svyazannyh s patologicheskimi processami, protekaushimi v molochnyh zhelezah, nachinaya ot takih sostoyanij, kak zagrubenie molochnyh zhelez pered menstruaciej, do mastita (naibolee chasto diagnostiruemaya patologiya u zhenshin), mastopatii i opuholevyh novoobrazovanij.
po vsemu miru opuholevye obrazovaniya molochnoj zhelezy zanimaut lidiruushie pozicii sredi onkologicheskih zabolevanij. poetomu vracha mammologa mozhno najti prakticheski v lubom medicinskom uchrezhdenii, bud to poliklinika, bolnica, krupnye medicinskie centry ili sanatorii.
lechenie perechislennyh vyshe patologicheskih sostoyanij provoditsya ambulatorno ili stacionarno. stacionarnoe lechenie vkluchaet i lekarstvennuu terapiu, i hirurgicheskie metody. operativnoe vmeshatelstvo po udaleniu patologicheskih novoobrazovaniji drugih vospalitelnyh ochagov v oblasti molochnoj zhelezy predpolagaet uchastie vracha-hirurga. neredko v kompetencii odnogo vracha nahoditsya neskolko vidov deyatelnosti, vkluchaya mammologiu, ginekologiu, onkologiu i hirurgiu.
chto lechit mammolog?
deyatelnost vracha mammologa zakluchaetsya v provedenii celogo ryada meropriyatij, napravlennyh na diagnostirovanie, profilaktiku i terapiu mnozhestvennyh nedugov molochnoj zhelezy.
disgormonalnyh patologij molochnyh zhelez, svyazannyh s narusheniyami gormonalnogo fona.
k dannoj kategorii zabolevanij otnosyat:
- fibrozno-kistoznuu bolezn ili po-drugomu mastopatiu, etot vid neduga v vide uplotnenij v grudi yavlyaetsya samojcommon pathology of the breast;
- Hypomastia – insufficient development of mammary glands;
- Hypermastia – swelling of the mammary glands accompanied by painful sensations;
- Gynecomastia – increase of the breast in men;
- Galactorrhea - spontaneous flow of milk in lactating women.
Neoplastic pathologies of the mammary glands. To this type include:
- Breast cancer;
- The echinococcosis.
Inflammatory processes in the mammary glands. For this classification include:
- Tuberculosis and syphilis of the mammary glands.
Inflammatory diseases are often accompanied by purulent formations,the treatment of which is also included in the competence of doctors specializing in purulent surgery.
Planned appointment with a mammologist: prevention, first and emergency inspectionImportant rule for keeping health – preventive examination by a mammologist twice a year, as the pathological processes of the mammary glands in women may begin as asymptomatic. For women who have reached thirty years of age, if no unpleasant symptoms, and predisposing genetic factors contributing to the development of breast cancer, visits to a mammologist can be shortened to one and a half times. But every woman must remember that tumors of the mammary glands often appear without obvious symptoms. Many female representatives conduct an independent study of the mammary glands by palpating, believing that will be able to determine abnormal changes. But this view is mistaken. Only professional approach involving multiple survey methods will allow to detect the disease at an early stage.
Also visit breast physician in need to carry out to women planning pregnancy who bears a child and breastfeeding. Because pregnant and lactating belong to the category of people most susceptible to the development of breast disease due to hormonal changes.
Regular visits mammalogy for the purpose of prevention should take place not only adult women but also young girls, as timely diagnosis of existing abnormalities of the breast will begin treatment in the early stages andaccordingly, to avoid the development of complications that threaten health and life. Therefore, first visit a specialist ought to have at a young age.
With the appearance of suspicious symptoms in the form of redness, discharge, pain, seals, and other unpleasant symptoms in the chest, examination and specialist consultation should be carried out urgently.
Visit breast physician has some feature to see him have to go after menstruation or for five to six days before ovulation. This is because these studies, provedennogo time of the menstrual cycle, can show incorrect results.
When necessary to pass examination by a mammologist for?
There are many pathological conditions of the mammary glands, the presence of which must be treated with caution and ask for a mandatory consultation with a doctor.
It is a specific symptoms, the presence of which should raise serious concerns, namely:
- Redness of the skin in the chest area;
- A sharp increase or a decrease in the size of the breast;
- The asymmetry of the Breasts;
- Bloating and swelling of the breast;
- Breast lump;
- Discharge from the nipple;
- Pain in the area of the armpits;
- Soreness in the chest;
- Swelling or embroiled skin near the nipples.
In addition to these signs, there are a number of predisposing factors, the presence of which should not be neglected advice mammalogy:
- Diseases of the genitourinary system (as present in the moment and past);
- Pregnancy, especially accompanied by certain unpleasant sensations in the chest area;
- Breast-feeding, avoidance of breastfeeding or excessively long latch the baby to breast;
- A difficult birth resulting in multiple complications;
- Frequent abortions and miscarriages;
- Early puberty, particularly menstruation, which began before 11 years of age;
- Menstrual disorders that include menopause;
- The trauma of the breast (blows, burns, etc.);
Diseases of the liver; (see also: symptoms, signs and treatment of liver diseases)
- Increased nervousness, emotional state, prolonged stress and depression;
- Hereditary factors, that is, the presence of close relatives of breast cancer;
- Disruption of the endocrine system (diabetes, thyroid disease);
- The use of hormonal drugs;
- Sexual dissatisfaction or lack of sexual life;
- Alcohol abuse and Smoking.
The presence of the considered risk factors involves conducting a thorough survey, including various methods of diagnosis, on the basis of which results the breast physician will prescribe appropriate preventive measures or treatment.
How is the reception of mammalogy?Initial examination by a mammologist is to conduct a palpation - probing of the mammary glands, the identification of present symptoms and factors predisposing to development of pathological disorders.
Further diagnosis is carried out using the following methods:
- Mammography– using x-ray irradiation to study the condition of the breast;
- Ultrasound examination of the thoracic region;
- Biopsy –USIP tissues for analysis for the presence of cancers.
As additional measures the study used:
- Scintigraphy - radionuclide examination, by introducing into the body of radioactive elements that emit radiation, allowing to make two-dimensional image of the breast;
- Computer and magnetic resonance tomography (CT and MRI);
- Ductography–radiography of the ducts of the gland.
Tests that may be set by a breast
Testing is also part of the survey.
The list includes:
- Clinical blood and urine tests;
- A blood test for tumor markers;
- Blood testing for changes in the endocrine system and abnormalities in the hormonal background;
- Cytology taken from the nipples of the material;
- Lumbar puncture is carried out using ULTRASONIC equipment with existing entities to determine their nature, benign or malignant.
To begin visits to a mammologist shouldas has been said, from an early age. admission of children and adolescents is the child's breast, whose specialization lies in timely detection and treatment of pathological conditions of the mammary glands of the growing organism. Such conditions include pseudotumor lesions, asymmetry, injury or hypertrophy of the glands, age-mastopathy, fibroadenoma and other violations, the identification of which in the initial stages of development will allow to do without radical measures, that is, without surgical intervention.
Monitoring mammologist should be all teenagers, when there is a rapid hormonal surge. It is in this period begin to put some breaches in the mammary glands, a discovery that often comes during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
The important point in the treatment of children and adolescents is the ability to connect that is not always easy, given the characteristics of the evolving psyche. So the children's breast should have a psychological education.
Breast cancer:symptomsTumors of the breast are not uncommon in women, and the disease progresses at different speed and may lead to the appearance of tumors of malignant nature of breast cancer. And don't just begun treating cancer can result in death.Therefore, it is important to know what symptoms accompany this disease.
Soreness in the chest of varying intensity. The pain has a different nature of origin. So, if you have pain in both Breasts,the disease is likely (in 90 percent of cases), hormonal in nature, that is related to a hormonal imbalance in the body.
The majority of women experience before menstruation dull pain in the armpits and chest. This condition is due to the content in the body of excess fluid. To eliminate the uncomfortable condition is recommended before the next monthly cycle to exclude from a diet excessively salty and caffeinated foods, as they contribute to moisture retention in the body. Another preventive method to eliminate the unpleasant pain in the chest is the correct choice of underwear, i.e. bra should be supportive, but do not push.
Sharp or shooting pains that are not associated with the menstrual cycle are observed after injuries of the mammary glands, biopsy of the breast, after which the duration of paincan last up to two years. Increased pain when you press on the chest or with deep breath may be indicative of such disease as arthritis. Also contribute to enhanced pain syndrome can stress, drinking alcohol.
But if the pain is only present in one breast accompanied by discharge, changes in breast size, thickening of the skin, presence of seals, do not delay a visit to mammologist, because these symptoms may be a manifestation of a dangerous disease –cancer.
Selection–the next symptom of breast cancer, which you need to pay attention although alarming symptom, indeed with a malignant tumor they in most cases are not related. Most often the selection of the breast, which is a clear or turbid liquid consistency, are distinctive characteristics of the menstrual cycle. This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that during menstruation – during the second half cycle is the accumulation of fluid in the milk ducts. At the end of the menstrual discharge, do not have pathological character are.
Sometimes the appearance of secretions from the mammary gland may contribute to the excited state of the nipples, or significant physical exertion, but in this case they quickly disappear.
Despite the fact that the secretions are not a direct indication of the presence of cancer in the breast, some of them, however, should cause concern and wariness:
- The permanent nature of the discharge, which lasts quite a long time (that is, they appear not only in the period of menstruation);
- Selection accompanied with the external changes of the breast such as seals, hardened skin and redness;
- Selection of spontaneous nature, that is, their appearance is not in the background of the menstrual cycle does not depend on physical activity or friction;
- Discharge from the nipples have a certain color (that is, they are not muddy or transparent, red or green tint);
- The skin of the nipple becomes inflamed, appear redness, rashes and itching;
- Allocation is observed only from one breast or observed from multiple pores in the nipple.
Seal, which are already noted in many cases, is not a sign of malignant tumors, however they should not be excluded as a serious symptom of possible breast cancer. (See also: Stages, symptoms, signs and treatment of breast cancer)
In particular, the appeal to mammologistcould be the emergence of the following symptoms associated with lump in her breast:
- When probing notes seal hardness;
- The edges of the seal uneven, do not have clear outlines;
- There is a characteristic tenderness at palpation;
- Similar seals in other breast not;
- The movement of the seal occurs only with tissue adjacent thereto;
- The characteristics of the seal, do not depend on the menstrual cycle.