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A nephrologist is a doctor who specializiruetsya on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the kidney like glomerulonephritis, urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, amyloidosis, and others.
At detection of such signs of renal pathology as one - and two-sided back pain, the presence of blood or protein in the urine, increased creatinine and white blood cells, edematous syndrome. Diagnosis of kidney diseases is complicated by the fact that in most cases they are asymptomatic, and therefore detected at a stage when surgical intervention is necessary.
Kidney disease can occur in acute or chronic form, their causes can be genetic factors, or infectious-inflammatory diseases.
What cures a nephrologist?A nephrologist diagnoses and treatment as well as prevention of such diseases:
- Urolithiasis – formation of stones from insoluble salts in the bladder, kidney and ureter;
- Arterial hypertension on the background of renal pathology – constantly high blood pressure is often a symptom of kidney disease.
- Glomerulonephritis – immune disease that is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, its symptoms are high blood pressure and swelling;
Amyloidosis – excessive formation of glycoprotein amyloid as a result of violations of protein-carbohydrate metabolism in severe leads to chronic renal failure (see also: Causes and symptoms of kidney failure);
- Nephritis –inflammatory disease of the pelvis of the kidneys that affects their blood vessels, tubules and glomeruli, often develops in children after infectious diseases angina, tonsillitis, scarlet fever.
- Pyelonephritis – acute or chronic disease of the renal pelvis, the most common cause of its development is the activity of pathogenic microorganisms, in particular Escherichia coli;
- Primary or secondary nephropathy;
- Acute orchronic renal failure;
- Drug failure – the occurrence of renal pathologies in connection with taking medication.
Surgical treatment of kidney disease by the doctor-urologist, surgical intervention is required when such conditions:
- Polycystic kidney cancerous tumors;
- The formation of large stones in urolithiasis kidneys;
- Tuberculous lesions of the kidney
- The anomalous position of kidneys, the violation of their anatomical structure;
- Complicated pyloric;
The symptoms of these diseases similar to those which refer to the nephrologist, therefore, requires additional consultation with a urologist for an accurate diagnosis and further treatment.
When to go to a nephrologist?
When asymptomatic renal disease can remain undiagnosed, leading to a series of serious complications from the urinary and other body systems. Most vulnerable in this case, the cardiovascular system, which disease of the kidneys are the first to suffer.
Therefore, you should carefully consider the condition of the body and the manifestation of the following symptoms, immediately consult a doctor-the nephrologist:
- Anuria – lack of urination due to insufficient amount of urine in the bladder or the complete lack of it, that may occur or due to impaired renal function. When anuria urine from the body is either not displayed or out not more than 50 ml per day, leading to venous congestion, increased load on the heart and intoxication.
- Oliguria– urine excreted from the body in insufficient quantities (around 400-500 ml at a rate of 1.5 l), this state is also characterized by the increased load on the cardiovascular system, as well as increase in urine output at night.
- Polyuria – frequent urination with the release of large amounts of urine (2-3 liters per day) can occur due to consumption of drinks that stimulate urine formation, but also because of disorders of the endocrine system or chronic renal failure.
- Single or bilateral pain localized in the lower back
- Hematuria or proteinuria – the presence of blood or protein in the urine.
The visit to the nephrologist is also needed, the patient has previously been detected the following diseases:
- pochechnye koliki;
- infekcii mochevydelitelnoj sistemy;
- ostrye vospalitelnye processy v pochkah;
- hronicheskaya ili ostraya pochechnaya nedostatochnost.
povyshennoe arterialnoe davlenie mozhet byt simptomom pochechnoj patologii, poetomu pri priznakah gipertonicheskoj bolezni neobhodima konsultaciya nefrologa.
kogda neobhodima konsultaciya nefrologa rebenku?zabolevaniya pochek chasto nabludautsya u detej, kotorye perenesli infekcionnye zabolevaniya (angina, tonzillit, skarlatina, orz).
konsultaciya i lechenie u nefrologa neobhodimy pri sleduushih proyavleniyah:
- uvelichenie ili umenshenie obema mochi do 1/3 normy, vydelyaemoj za sutki;
- izmenenie harakteristik mochi – cveta, zapaha, konsistencii;
- otechnyj sindrom – konsultaciya u specialista neobhodima dazhe pri poyavlenii neznachitelnoj pripuhlosti v oblasti glaz;
- nalichie primesej slizi i krovi v moche, mutnogo osadka;
- pokrasnenie vneshnih polovyh organov, bolevye oshusheniya pri mocheispuskanii;
- nochnye mocheispuskaniya u detej starshe 4 let.
chto proishodit na prieme u nefrologa?
v processe konsultacii u nefrologa vrach oprashivaet pacienta, opredelyaet nalichie u nego simptomov zabolevanij pochek. nefrolog mozhet zadavat voprosy o nalichii zabolevanij mochevydelitelnoj sistemy sredi rodnyh pacienta, chtoby vyyavit nasledstvennuu predraspolozhennost k pochechnym patologiyam. takzhe neobhodimo soobshit specialistu o meste i haraktere raboty (chtoby iskluchit patologii, svyazannye s intoksikaciej organizma), vese i sroke rozhdeniya (nefrony, sostavlyaushie pochki, okonchatelno formiruutsya na poslednih srokah beremennosti), dannye o diureze i urovne arterialnogo davleniya.
analizy, naznachaemye nefrologom
- testy, opredelyaushie uroven kreatinina, mocheviny, kalciya i fosfatov, analiz krovi i mochi na elektrolity;
- analiz krovi na predmet opredeleniya skorosti osazhdeniya eritrocitov;
- analiz na s-reaktivnyj belok.
dopolnitelno mogut ponadobitsya sleduushie instrumentalnye issledovaniya:
- rentgenologicheskoe obsledovanie pochek – angiografiya;
- uzi pochek i organov brushnoj polosti;
- radionuklidnoe obsledovanie – scintografiya;
- A biopsy of the tissues of the kidneys.
Therapy of kidney disease, the nephrologist has two main directions:
- Simultaneously treatment is a universal option that allows you to restore kidney function at all possible pathologies;
- Specific treatment therapy is aimed at treating a certain disease.
Preparing for the nephrologist
- Have a diagnosis of kidneys performed on an empty stomach, to abstain from food 12 hours before you need to see a specialist;
12 hours before the visit to the nephrologist is also prohibited to take alcohol and Smoking;
- Liquid the day before the appointment is limited to a minimum quantity;
- It is recommended that during the day not to take any medicine if it does not threaten health. If the course of therapy must not be interrupted, however, it is necessary to inform your doctor.