The content of the article:
- Diseases that cures optometrist
- Optometrist and ophthalmologist: what's the difference?
- When to go with the child to the optometrist?
- Routine examination by an ophthalmologist
- Urgent examination by an ophthalmologist
- How is the reception by an ophthalmologist
- Table for eye tests
- Analyses and studies carried out by the optometrist
- It is important to know!
Ophthalmologist is a doctor who specializiruetsya on the study of the mechanisms of occurrence and development of diseases of organs of vision. During the consultation, the ophthalmologist diagnoses diseases of the visual organs, assigns the appropriate therapy and preventive measures necessary to improve the quality of vision.
Diseases that cures optometrist
Optometrist shall adjust and determine a course of treatment at the diseases of organs of vision, associated with disruption of the optical structures of the eye and structure of the vitreous body, retinal detachment, destructive changes in the tissues of the eye and cornea.
Optometrist deals with the treatment of myopia, hyperopia, glaucoma, cataracts, astigmatism and other diseases associated with impaired vision.
Blurred vision is not always a consequence of pathological processes in the optic organs, and in 80% of cases the quality of vision decreases in the following diseases and conditions:
- Dysfunction of the thyroid gland – hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism;
- Arterial hypertension;
- Diabetes mellitus;
- Infectious-inflammatory processes;
- Renal failure and pathology of the urinary system;
- Atherosclerosis, diseases of the blood and blood vessels;
- Inflammation of the pancreas;
- Pathological course of pregnancy.
The most common pathological conditions and diseases turn to the optometrist contained in this list with a description of the symptoms or traits of the disease for some of them:
- Conjunctivitis – an inflammatory disease of the mucosa of the eyelid (conjunctiva), during which she was red and swollen, appear painful, burning and itching. Conjunctivitis may occur in the initial stages of SARS.
- Blepharitis – inflammation of the ciliary edge of the century with the swelling, formation of ulcers and crusts, can be observed the allocation of buttery consistency.
- Trachoma – a disease with symptoms typical for viral conjunctivitis duration, in the absence of treatment may be several months.
- Cataract is a clouding of the lens that often develops in older people but can occur at a young age, can be congenital. Cataract causes a gradual and painless loss of vision or poor quality for several years.
- Glaucoma is a disease that develops on the background of a constantly elevated intraocular pressure, leads to severe lesions of the optic nerve fibers, and disturbances of visual function;
- Spring catarrh is a disease of allergic nature, usually the period of exacerbation falls in the spring, after which the inflammation lasts from several months to a year.
Chalazion – century a dense ball the size of a few millimeters in diameter, it is not characterized by pain and redness over disease ball does not change in size. (See also: Causes and symptoms of chalazion, diagnosis and prevention)
- Trichiasis is caused due to deformation of cartilage century, due to which the lashes grow in different directions, exerting mechanical pressure on the mucous membrane century and the eyeball. The condition causes a number of pathologies of organs of vision, increases the risk of conjunctivitis.
- Barley – on the skin eyelid or conjunctiva appears purulent abscess, causing inflammation and swelling of this area;
- Tearing can occur as a result of compression of the lacrimal drainage system or appear as an allergic reaction due to the increasedthe secretion of the lacrimal gland;
- Keratitis – corneal haze which interferes with vision, and there are painful feelings, to provoke a keratitis can viral and bacterial infections, the constant wearing contact lenses allergic reactions;
- Scleritis and episcleritis – an inflammatory disease of the outer shell of the eyeball – sclera;
- Ectropion, deformation of cartilage is the age at which they are turned out without signs of inflammation, not reduce the place;
- Iridocyclitis – a disease of iris and ciliary body of the eye;
- Presbyopia – a vision disorder in which one loses the ability to focus on close objects. Also called age-related farsightedness.
- Keratoconus is a pathological condition in which the cornea of the spherical shape takes the form of a cone, which becomes a cause of visual impairment in type of myopia and astigmatism.
Astigmatism – a violation of visual function, in which the outlines of objects become less clear, and straight lines appear curved. Develop because of the pathology of the eye optical system in which light rays are not focused in one but in several points(see also: Causes and symptoms of astigmatism).
- Mechanical damage and injury to the eyes;
- Ptosis – drooping of the eyelid, raising difficult, but a symptom of inflammation such as swelling, burning, itching and redness can occur if the ptosis is the only observed pathology. In the case of the presence of inflammatory foci in the organs of vision, ptosis can be a symptom.
- Hemorrhages occur when there is insufficient blood clotting, due to friction or mechanical impact on the eyelids, can also occur during physical exertion or coughing.
Any inflammatory diseases and pathological conditions of the eyelids, conjunctiva, eyeball and cheek glands require treatment by an ophthalmologist.
Optometrist and ophthalmologist: what's the difference?
Optometrist and ophthalmologist are specialists of the same profile, dealing with diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. However, ophthalmologist-surgeon is highly specialized and carries out the therapy of the organs of vision only in case of necessity of surgical intervention, whereas for the conservative treatment refer to optometrist.
When to go with the child to the optometrist?
Examination by an ophthalmologist is required the first months of life – it helps to detect congenital abnormalities – cataract, glaucoma, retinal tumor and to take appropriate measures to prevent further vision loss. In the absence of timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the organs of vision can lead to partial or complete blindness. The first visit to a specialist is carried out in the age of two months, after it in the absence of pathology inspection is carried out every year.
Treatment of eye diseases in childhood gives a good performance, because in this period the visual system is characterized by flexibility and high capacity for regeneration. To 12-14 years, when the formation of the organs of vision ends, treatment of eye diseases is slower.
Optometrist the process of planned inspection, which should be done annually determines the condition of the organs of vision and identify possible lesions and pathological processes. It is a necessary preventive measure to preserve vision and to improve it. There are also urgent inspection, it is necessary, when the patient needs emergency care.
Routine examination by an ophthalmologist
The first routine inspection conducted at infant age of 2 months. The optometrist determines how well developed the organs of vision, whether the child has strabismus or other pathologies, in the process of examination, the doctor uses special drops that are harmless to the baby, and the effect of their application completely disappears for two or three hours to the end of the inspection. This is necessary for timely diagnosis of congenital cataract, glaucoma, retinoblastoma and other eye diseases.
If the child was born prematurely until 34 weeks of pregnancy, then it at high risk of developing retinopathy. Among the serious complications of this disease – visual impairment including blindness, laboveta. Therefore, premature infants to routine inspection early, at the age of one month. After the first scheduled inspection, you must regularly visit an ophthalmologist every two weeks until the child reaches the age of three.
Further preventive examinations performed in 1 year in 3 years before entering kindergarten and at the age of 6 years before school. After a child enters school his visual system starts to be subjected to high loads associated with study, which determines the need for annual routine inspection afterwards.
Additional visits to the optometrist, the doctor will prescribe depending on the condition of the organs of vision, changes that occur in them in the development process.
Urgent examination by an ophthalmologist
Emergency care specialist-ophthalmologist is required by a child, if his organs of sight were exposed to trauma and in the presence of tear fluid, or other parts of the eye for any foreign objects that threaten the health of the eye.
There are a number of specific symptoms that must be seen by parents in time to give the child eye care:
- The disappearance of a baby from 2 months reflex tracking of moving within 20 cm from the face of the objects;
- Incomplete cover of the century;
- Strabismus of any type;
- A sty;
- There is swelling and redness of the eyelids;
- Pain and itching, which are expressed in constant rubbing of the eyes;
- Sensitivity bordering photophobia, photophobia or explicit (in case of contact with eyes bright light, the child avoids);
- Severe tearing or discharge from the eyes of any other nature;
- Serious head injury;
Pathological condition, which might tell the child on personal feelings (flies, lightnings before the eyes, unfocused, blurred vision, or bifurcated).
These symptoms are characteristic not only for children, but babies complications arise, as they often are unable to articulate their complaints are understandable to parents language. When observing at least one of the above signs of eye abnormalities shown an urgent appeal to the optometrist.
How is the reception by an ophthalmologist
For a quality inspection must have a good psychological state of a child, calm mood, openness and willingness to talk. This should take care of both parents and the optometrist, who must show the qualities of a good child psychologist to get more information about the state of view from the child.
Table for eye testsThe order of inspection depends on the age of the patient. In the process of conducting a routine inspection ophthalmologist performs the following studies:
- Determines the state of the eyelids and lacrimal drainage system;
- Is determined by the presence or absence of strabismus – it explores the movement and position of the eyeballs;
- In the process of skiaskopiais determined by the degree of refraction, the optical properties of the visual system. This procedure allows to identify such diseases as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism;
- Examines the state of the pupils, their reaction to light;
- Fundus examination is necessary for timely diagnosis of diseases such as glaucoma, cataracts, and hydrocephalus;
- Determines the ability to distinguish colors to eliminate color blindness – children under the age of three can confuse blue with green or red, it is not considered a pathology.
- Determines visual acuity – younger children demonstrate images, when testing vision in children and adults show a table with letters.
The results of a comprehensive examination, the doctor prescribes a course of treatment of identified abnormalities, which may include medication, physiotherapy, exercises for vision correction. If necessary, the optometrist provides eyeglasses.
Due to the fact that in many cases disturbances are not associated with pathology of organs of the visual system and other systemic diseases, an ophthalmologist can prescribe tests and issue a referral to another profile, neurologist, endocrinologist, infectious diseases. Chronic disease of vision, which eventually progresses require constant monitoring by an ophthalmologist to prevent serious complications and vision loss.
Analyses and studies carried out by the optometrist
In addition to the standard examination, the ophthalmologist may prescribe some additional tests that provide information about the factors that indirectly affect eye health. Such diagnostic procedures are the immunity, which indicates the status of cellular and humoral immunity, and immunologic diagnostic – study of the effect of contagious infestation, cancer and hormonal diseases on the health of the eye.
Additional diagnostics may be required for the detection of infectious and parasitic diseases for which proven a devastating effect on vision:
- the herpes simplex virus;
- toxoplasmosis and others.
It is important to know!
- Any vision pathology associated with impaired accommodation (ability of the eye to focus) require urgent correction. The sooner started the appropriate treatment of spasm, paralysis of accommodation, asthenopia,presbyopia, myopia, astigmatism, the greater the chance of restoring vision and maintaining healthy eyes for a long time.
- Glasses are not a treatment method of vision problems – they are likely to play a role analogous to the role of crutch for those unable to walk a person. Moreover, if you assign the child glasses if he has farsightedness or astigmatism, the negative effects of wearing them can be irreversible.
If there is significant deterioration of vision in one eye, visual perception load is fully shifted to a healthy body. This may result in a strong deterioration of his condition, for example, the development of strabismus. (See also: Causes and symptoms of strabismus)
Better not to buy a well-known ploy of marketers – namely, free sight tests in opticians. Remember that to properly assess the quality of vision and eye health can only a certified eye specialist in specialized eye clinic with conditions, which must be properly equipped and properly lit.