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An orthodontist is a specialist that deals with malocclusion in humans, using different materials and techniques. Orthodontist as the dentist treats the teeth, however, its scope is narrower.
Orthodontic dentist examines the causes of anomalies of the teeth and jaw, assess the severity of a particular patient and provides adequate treatment of existing problems.
In addition, the orthodontist develops preventive measures to prevent recurrence of the disease and its progression.
What cures a orthodontist?Often in the conversation of people with no medical training, you can hear that the orthodontist deals with the treatment of "crooked teeth". In fact, it is this definition captures the essence of the doctor, however, additionally, it deals with the elimination of factors causing the formation of malocclusion.
Pathology with which the orthodontist is faced most often:
- Disruption of the functioning of the vocal apparatus and respiratory system.
- Abnormal development of the face.
- Violation of chewing function.
- The formation of the distal, open, deep, or anterior cross-bite.
- The discrepancies in the location of some teeth in the oral cavity in the tooth row.
- The discrepancies in the location of the entire dentition, or both the dentition in the oral cavity – their extension, narrowing, lengthening, shortening.
Depending on the time segment, when manifested pathology, can be identified:
- Congenital disorders: the distortion of the primary and permanent teeth, adentia, full or partial, of cleft lip (upper and lower).
- The violations that appeared some time later, after the birth of the child.
- Hereditary disorders: adontia, malocclusions, increased number of teeth, the diastema.
The competence of an orthodontist includes the following steps:
- Preparing the patient for performing orthognathic interventions, to operations aimed at the correction of facial aesthetics. The operation is performed maxillofacial surgeons.
- Performs the replacement of lost teeth, or milk, or a constant.
- Adjusts the direction of the growth of teeth, their size, the shape of the jaw, facial aesthetics and deformed facial features within the dentition.
- Prepares to orthopedic therapy.
- Prepare the dentition for the installation of prosthesis (fixed or removable).
- Prepares a plot of the dentition to implant in the future.
From the condition of the teeth largely depends on a person's appearance, his success in society, in personal life, in professional terms. Healthy teeth are impossible without a beautiful smile. Often people who have problems with the occlusion, with the formation of the dentition, experiencing multiple psychological difficulties, against which develop complexes.
Therefore, if a person suffers from any disorders in the formation or development of the jaw, it is necessary to visit the orthodontist at least for a consultation. Moreover, obstacles in the form of age or other restrictions exists.
It is important to find a specialist with experience and relevant qualifications. In addition, the clinic, in which the orthodontist must be equipped with modern equipment that enables to practice all orthodontic methods, which has this branch of medicine.
As a rule, orthodontia therapy is a process consisting of several stages. The first stage is a time intensive treatment, here the doctor uses all those methods of treatment that are necessary to resolve the problem of the individual patient. The second stage is the retention time of impact. Its main task is to consolidate the already achieved results of therapy.
The skill of the specialist lies not only in the preparation of competent treatment regimens available dentofacial anomalies, but in the most gentle effect on the enamel. In order to minimize the potential risk of damage to the doctors use in their work modern orthodontic appliances.
There are lots of them, depending on what therapeutic effect they can provide, there are:
- Machines combined, automatic, functional guides and functionally active. The classification criterion is the modality.
- Extraoral devices, duclottni, one jaw and combined. In this case, the classification criterion is the scope of the impacts.
- Devices fixed, removable, or combined type. The classification criterion is the method of fixation hardware.
- apparaty plastinochnye, karkasnye, elastichnye, dugovye, kappovye, blochnye. klassifikacionnyj kriterij – vneshnij vid konstrukcii.
dlya togo chtoby dostich polozhitelnogo rezultata ot provodimoj terapii, neobhodimo regulyarnoe noshenie podobrannoj konstrukcii. v etom plane problemy chashe vsego voznikaut u detej, poetomu strogij kontrol so storony roditelej za sobludeniem vseh rekomendacij, dannyh ortodontom, neobhodim.
konechno, vstaet vopros esteticheskogo haraktera, osobenno eto kasaetsya nosheniya breketov. ih ispolzuut dlya ustraneniya anomalij kak vo vzroslom, tak i v podrostkovom vozraste. dlya togo, chtoby konstrukciya byla kak mozhno menee zametnoj, mozhno vybrat sapfirovye brekety. oni na zubah prakticheski nezametny. imenno takie apparaty podhodyat ludyam, professionalnaya deyatelnost kotoryh svyazana s publichnostu.
lechenie detej u detskogo ortodontasamoe rasprostranennoe oshibochnoe mnenie roditelej detej doshkolnogo i mladshego shkolnogo vozrasta zakluchaetsya v tom, chto molochnye zuby ne nuzhdautsya v kakoj-libo terapii. na samom dele, ignorirovanie problem s pervymi zubami privedet k tomu, chto postoyannye zuby takzhe budut nezdorovy. specialisty v oblasti detskoj ortodontii otmechaut, chto terapiya odnogo i togo zhe molochnogo zuba sposobna privesti k ego prezhdevremennoj potere. poetomu vrachi, pri nalichii takogo riska, rekomenduut primenyat specialnye ortodonticheskie koronki.
karies u detej razvivaetsya po ryadu prichin, vedushimi iz kotoryh yavlyautsya pristrastie k produktam s vysokim soderzhaniem sahara i nedostatochnaya gigiena rotovoj polosti. problema usugublyaetsya tem, chto lechenie uzhe voznikshego kariesa chasto otsutstvuet. eto svyazano s imeushimisya u detej strahami pered stomatologom i s tem, chto roditeli idut na povodu u svoih malyshej, schitaya problemy s molochnymi zubami nesereznymi. kak itog – razrastanie karioznoj polosti, razrushenie zubnoj stenki i udalenie bolnogo zuba. ego otsutstvie mnogimi vzroslymi vosprinimaetsya kak nechto, nezasluzhivaushee povoda dlya volneniya. na samom dele, eto daleko nepravilnyj podhod.
vynuzhdennaya nesvoevremennaya poterya molyarov ili rezcov, dazhe molochnyh, vedet k formirovaniu nepravilnogo prikusa. v itoge, postoyannyj zubnoj ryad budet formirovatsya so smesheniem. osobenno eto kasaetsya teh zubov, kotorye rastut okolo utrachennogo molochnogo zuba.
eshe odna problema rannej poteri zubov vchildhood is the formation of incorrect speech. It is a violation of pronunciation of sounds, from which children begin to develop complexes.
Not less important negative consequence from losing a baby tooth – violation of formation of the dentition as a whole. As there is a shift in the tooth row, new permanent teeth will have nowhere to grow, and they begin to erupt incorrectly with change of direction, or by layering.
Therefore, if there is early loss of the tooth, to the fore the problem of preserving the space for future eruption of the permanent molar or incisor. In the Arsenal of orthodontist there are a variety of devices, such as permanent crowns, which are fixed on the remaining teeth intact and act as spacers. Another option is the installation of the plate with an artificial tooth in place is lost. These plates can be removed.
It is important to monitor the formation of bite the child at the time, when in the mouth it has teeth. If there are any violations, the need for timely and competent orthodontic treatment. The sooner the start, the more effective it will be. To normalize the occlusion is often used laminar device of the removable type that allows you to fix the problem.
However, even the early therapeutic effects are not always capable of completely correcting the problem. Therefore, such treatment is often considered not as primary but as an auxiliary, which is a preparatory stage for the subsequent work of the doctor and the patient. In the future it will boil down to the fact that a person will establish a fixed bracket system. In the case of pretreatment, wearing braces will be more comfortable and less painful, and that is important – not so long-term. Therefore, any competent specialist will offer such a therapeutic scheme.
Malocclusion in children
If the child develops malocclusion and thus it does not receive proper treatment, it can cause the following symptoms:
- Partial loss of ability to chew food. Of course, due to wrong bite, the child will not cease to chew, however, certain difficulties he will experience. In the end, disturbed digestion, which leads to various diseases of respective organs.
- Teeth begin to break down faster, which is a chronic focus of infection. This condition negatively affects the immune system in General.
On the surface of teeth formed plaque, which causes the formation of periodontal pockets and gingival inflammation. In the end, the child will begin to suffer fromof periodontitis. (See also: periodontitis. Causes and symptoms)
Children's orthodontist its task is exclusively to correction of the abnormal development of the jaw and teeth, which impairs the normal process of chewing and speech. Orthopedic dentistry is aimed at being the first goal is to eliminate the strain, which were obtained as a result of injury or disease.
Orthodontists are the following reasons leading to improper formation of the occlusion in children:
- The factor of heredity;
- The rejection of the natural process of breastfeeding;
- Violation of terms of eruption and loss of teeth;
- Diseases that affect the oral cavity;
- The lack of hard food in the diet of the child;
- Night stay of the child in one position;
- Harmful habits such as thumb sucking or biting of the lips and cheeks.
It is known that the share of the inheritance falls to 30% of all cases of violations of the formation of occlusion.
The best option for each child is regularly monitored by the orthodontist, starting from the age of two. Thus originated the occlusion is temporary and it will be easy to adjust. In addition, the effect on the teeth will not be as critical as in advanced cases of the disease.
Since 6 years the child develops a replacement bite if it needs adjustment, no special apparatus is not enough. In this case, will be used in functional devices, removable plate devices and trainers, with versatility.
Features of bite correction in adultsThe ideal option is correction of malocclusion, starting from preschool age. However, when the time is missed, due to various reasons, the issue needs to be addressed in adulthood.
Orthodontists do not exclude the possibility of correction of bite at any age, but the adult patient will have to face certain difficulties which, if timely started therapy could be avoided. Principles of treatment of children and adults have a common basis, however, some differences are still present.
Sometimes the patient has to remove one or more teeth. Clean only those the teeth that are the obstacle to perform a full prosthesis. Should tune that to correct the bite completelyit is not always possible. Worst of all corrections yields the wrong class III malocclusion, while the distal and dentoalveolar protrusion malocclusion treated much better. In addition, require therapy other, formed on the background of malocclusion problems:
- carious education, often multiple;
- effacement crowns in pathological form;
- excessive mobility of the teeth;
- edentulous, retention;
- diseases of oral mucosa, periodontium, etc.;
- problems neuromuscular in nature.
A related problem requires a mandatory removal, her treatment should be carried out before the stage of prosthetics. Careful preparation to the process of prosthetics and a full preliminary examination is key to the success of the therapy.
If the patient is not yet 25 years of age, it is possible to perform the treatment by moving the posterior teeth of the upper jaw to the moment until they are aligned with the side teeth on the lower jaw. After that, the orthodontist will guide the efforts to correct the location of the front teeth. In this case, you might also need to remove any teeth to align other through the vacated space. The whole process of treatment is always discussed with the patient and all manipulations are carried out only after his consent.
To speed up the process of bite correction is possible if the patient agrees to surgery. Most often used compactsteam, which is the incision of the bone and displacement of teeth. This operation is performed for a fortnight before the start of orthodontic therapy. It allows you to achieve faster results in adolescent and in adulthood.
To adjust the position of the dentition using a removable insert designs. For this they have special springs, wires and levers. Sometimes patients mounted a fixed ring, which are fixed using special cement. Subsequently they can be moved using inside and wheretobuy cravings.
The prognosis for correcting malocclusion in adults depends on many additional factors. For example, on the severity of the accompanying diseases, the individual characteristics of the dentition of patients, from the severity of the bite. The prognosis is worse for gnatichesky the form of bite than to dentoalveolar open. If during the therapy failed to eliminate the factor provocateur malocclusion, it is quite possible recurrence of the pathology. In this case, can help strict adherence to all the recommendations of the orthodontist and regular surveillance this specialist has.