Intestinal dysbiosis in children
Intestinal dysbiosis in children is a change in its normal microflora on pathogenic. Violations occur in both qualitative and quantitative in its composition. In children the symptoms of dysbiosis are significantly different from the symptoms of such disorders in adults. This is especially true of infants and younger ages.
The problem of intestinal dysbiosis in pediatric patients is quite acute. Recent studies indicate that, in varying degrees of severity, disruptions of the normal intestinal biocenosis have 25-50% of healthy children, breastfeeding. In that case, if there is any concomitant disease, physical or infectious, intestinal dysbiosis is, with a probability of 100%. The severity of the pathology is determined in each case individually.
The child leaving the birth canal from the sterile conditions in which he was 9 months old, released into the environment, filled with various bacteria. Colonization by microbes of the body of the newborn occurs almost immediately. Most of the bacteria he gets from the mothers during passage through the birth canal and during breastfeeding. In milk, which gives the mother of the child and its colostrum contains immune factors that stand in the way of pathogens attempting to colonize the intestine of the newborn. That is why such importance doctors pay natural feeding of children. The sooner the baby will be attached to the breast, the better its protection against dysbiosis in the future. Optimal in this case time – first half hour after birth.
The first five days of a baby's life are the time when the intestinal canal is populated not only beneficial bacteria but also pathogenic. Therefore, all newborns in the first 7 days of life occurs so-called transient dysbiosis. It is manifested by regurgitation, pain, spastic nature and loose stool which mixed with mucus. In normal, this type of dysbiosis alone is after another week. If there are any aggravating factors, the formation of the normal flora with a predominance of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria does not occur. In the end, the child develops an overgrowth.
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Symptoms of dysbiosis in children
Symptoms of dysbiosis in children will vary depending on the age of the child.
So, for newborns and infants to a greater extent characterized by the following signs of violations of the intestinal microflora:
- Rumbling and shimmering in the abdomen;
- Spasms in the intestines;
- Underweight slow weight gain;
- Restless behavior;
- Sleep disorders;
- Violations of the stool with the admixtures of mucus, with the formation of lumps;
- Violations of the color of the chair, his lightening, or the purchase of a chair greenish hue;
- A putrid, acidic smell from bowel movements;
- Cal is not a liquid, often with abundant foam;
- Malabsorption syndrome on the background of which the infant develops diarrhea, polyhypovitaminosis, steatorrhea, malnutrition. Particularly acute in childhood, there is a shortage of b vitamins, calcium, protein-energy malnutrition;
- Intoxication in infancy has serious consequences: the child begins to lag behind in physical development, he loses appetite, develops predefinita anemia;
- Atopic dermatitis, urticaria, angioneurotic edema, bronchospasm – all these manifestations of Allergy may be the results of pathological processes occurring in the intestine of the child.
As children get older, the symptoms of dysbiosis are changing.
So, signs indicating disturbances in the gut microflora in children after a year, are:
- Alternating diarrhea and constipation, with a possible predominance of diarrhea or delay of the chair;
- Intestinal colic;
- Bad breath child;
- Skin rash;
- Feeling of fullness of the stomach after eating;
- On the background of hypovitaminosis the metabolism;
- Reduction of immune forces can specify zaedy and cracks in the corners of the mouth;
- You may receive acne, recurrent stomatitis and boils;
- Hair and nails become brittle, etc.
Separately it is necessaryto focus on the symptoms of dysbiosis in children, depending on the type of bacteria that such violations caused:
- If the intestines of the child will prevail fungal microflora, stool mostly foam, films on the surface. Can take the form of lumps. Often on the background of a dysbacteriosis, the child develops cheilitis, glossitis, thrush, lesions of smooth skin, balanoposthitis, visceral candidiasis, vulvitis. Often arise of asthma exacerbation, and atopic dermatitis.
- If the intestine is dominated by staphylococcal flora, dysbiosis is severe, often the type of generalized sepsis. Staphylococcus aureus in recent years increasingly affects the intestines of children under one year of age. Even mild disease is characterized by elevation of body temperature, nausea and vomiting, presence of impurities CROI in the stool.
- If the child has Pseudomonas, or esherihioznae goiter, pathology erased often occurs without obvious symptoms. Parents should alert the chair with the admixtures of mucus, dyspepsia, a child's complaints of dull pain in the area of the sigmoid colon.
- When the gut is dominated by Proteus, the child will be observed dyspepsia, for a long time can hold subfebrile body temperature.
Causes of dysbiosis in children
Causes of goiter in children can be very different, among them:
- Complications during pregnancy and during labor.
- Later breastfeeding.
- Prematurity of the child.
- Bacterial vaginosis in obstetric patients.
- Inadequate nutrition of the mother during breastfeeding.
- Early separation from the breast, transfer to artificial feeding.
- Frequent viral infection in a child.
- The presence of a diathesis.
- In preschool and school age, the child has a goiter may develop in irrational nutrition. Especially dangerous in this respect, the predominance of carbohydrate foods, as well as the priority products of animal origin.
- A negative factor is the pollution of the environment.
- May affect the administration of antibacterialdrugs, treatment of hormonal drugs.
- Perhaps the development of dysbacteriosis on the background of emotional instability, with frequent stress, on the background of neurosis and other psychological disorders.
- Goiter in children may develop on the background of diseases of the digestive tract that is quite an important issue in Pediatrics. It could be: gastritis, peptic ulcer, enterocolitis, lactase deficiency, pancreatitis, constipation, etc.
- Infestation is also a predisposing factor to the development of dysbiosis. Threat giardiasis, ascariasis.
- Is timely to eliminate all chronic infections, such as tonsillitis and dental caries.
- In older children, the threat may be diabetes, cancer and other diseases, characteristic for the adult population.
What is a goiter and why does it occur?
The analysis of a feces on a dysbacteriosis in children
To establish the diagnosis of goiter only after visiting the pediatrician and pediatric gastroenterologist. Doctors are appointed by laboratory tests and, if necessary, additional instrumental assessment. Assesses the condition of the skin of the child's mucous membranes, is made by palpation of the abdomen.
Mandatory study is the analysis of a feces on a dysbacteriosis in children. Confirms the presumptive diagnosis of a decrease in the number of Lactobacillus (less than 10 in 7 degree) and bifidobacteria (less than 10 in 9 degrees), while in Calais found gram-negative bacilli, an increasing number of coccal and mushrooms (more than 10 in 3 Stepni) and Clostridium (10 to 5 degrees). Normal hemolytic streptococci should be absent completely. Other conditionally pathogenic enterobacteria should not exceed 10 in 4 degrees.
To find out the cause of dysbiosis in children may need an ultrasound, a gastroscopy, the analysis of Giardia, helminth eggs and other tests.
When you need analysis on a dysbacteriosis?
What to do if the analysis on a dysbacteriosis found dangerous germs?
A treatment of dysbiosis in children
Treatment of dysbacteriosis in children always starts with the selection for the little patient's optimum for diet. If the baby is on mixed and artificial feeding, heshows the introduction in the diet of dairy products.
At older ages should be removed from the menu, sugar, animal protein, simple carbohydrates. The child must receive milk products that allow you to restore the disturbed balance of microflora. Dietary fiber must enter the intestine together with food.
In children prescribe probiotics. These drugs contain in their structure either one or several kinds of useful intestinal bacteria. Modern drugs-probiotics – Bifidumbacterin, Linex Bificol, Baktisubtil. There are also drugs-probiotics that promote the natural growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, creating an optimal environment. Such tools include hilak-Forte, Duphalac. Combination drugs are symbiotic is Multidophilus, Bifidobak.
With the purpose of the election of the purgation of the child from the pathogenic flora, it is prescribed bacteriophages that leiroot harmful bacteria. While harm beneficial microorganisms does not apply. If the treatment with bacteriophages has no effect, the patient may be recommended a course of antibacterial drugs from the group of cephalosporins or macrolides.
When the results of the analysis of the feces revealed a high concentration of fungal micro-organisms, then is shown taking antifungals. It can be Nystatin, fluconazole.
Drugs-sorbents (Enterosgel, Activated carbon, etc.) is prescribed for signs of intoxication. If there are violations of digestion, individually selected enzymatic means.
Possible intake of vitamins, adaptogenic therapy with immunomodulators for frequent infections.
How to treat dysbiosis?