Causes, symptoms and prevention of cataracts, eye drops
What is a cataract?Eye cataract is a disease that is characterized by either complete or partial clouding of the substance of the eye lens or its capsule. Pathology is accompanied by loss of vision or its loss.
Despite the fact that most often it cataract in adults older than 50 years, yet this disease is characteristic for any age. There are several types of cataracts. These include traumatic, congenital, and radiation cataracts complicated.
According to world statistics, in the world of patients with cataracts, there are about 17 000 000 people. And most of them older than 60 years. At the age of 75 have cataracts 26 % of men and 46% women. And among those whose age has crossed 80, incidence cataract 90 %.
The development of cataracts may be some delay, however, the older a person is, the more likely it is to detect this pathology of view.
The symptoms of cataracts
Cataract has several degrees of defeat, and depending on this, will vary the symptoms, however, the main ones include:
- The occurrence of strabismus in the eye, in the case where the second closed. This is an early symptom, as the disease progresses, it disappears.
- Blurred images, blurred images, which is not corrected with contact lenses and glasses. Thus hard to see how close and far away objects. Patients characterize this vision as blurred, with the formation of the shroud.
- The appearance of outbreaks and flare that occurs mainly at night.
- Increase the light sensitivity of the eye at night. Overall night vision deteriorates. All the lights seem overly bright to the patient, irritating the eyes.
- In reviewing the light sources, a person with cataracts sees around him ghosting. People with clouding of the lens is not able to operate the machine, or it is given to him with difficulty, as its lights blind oncoming traffic.
- The perception of color is disrupted, they become more pale. It is especially difficult to perceive a person the shades of purple and blue.
- Improve vision wearing temporary. This symptom is characterized by the fact that the person wearing the glasses earlier, with progression of the disease can abandon them. However, this time period is short and vision will again begin to deteriorate.
- If a person often have to change glassesof view, there is reason to think on cataract, as this disease tends to progress and to rapidly reduce visual acuity.
Symptoms of cataract is the emergence of stripes and flashing spots or different balls. The ancient Greeks called this disease a waterfall, as with cataract, the person has the feeling that his eyes covered by a veil, and he looks as if through misted glass.
With cataract eye difficult to read, to write, to work with small parts. As "ripening" of the cataract the color of the pupil changes from black to white.
Signs of cataractsThe first sign that allows the doctor to suspect a person's cataract is the age of the patient older than 60 years. While the clinical picture is characteristic features. On examination, the ophthalmologist observes the haze, which can be located in various parts of the eye: peripheral lobe of the lens or in front of the pupil. Opacities are gray in nature, sometimes with a white shade.
Depending on what species the cataract, the ophthalmologist will observe a diverse clinical picture, accompanied by these signs:
- Front cataract appears as a white spot with clearly defined borders. When she was a little forward and pointy, the kind of cataract is called the anterior pyramid.
- If the turbidity is located at the posterior pole of the lens and represented in the form of a round ball of white color, it refers back polar cataract.
- Central cataract is determined by such characteristics as: a spherical form, the location of the center of the lens, the diameter 2 mm.
- On the fusiform cataract allows to judge her form. This clouding is presented in the form of a thin spindle, it is located along the entire length of the lens.
- Sanwarna congenital cataract has the appearance of a cloudy core with transparent layers.
- Clouding of the lens of all, the dilution of the masses and further the formation of a dense bags – these are signs of a soft cataract.
- Diabetic cataract is characterized by the appearance of white opacities in the form of flakes. They are located on all surfaces of the lens, often there is a change in the iris.
- Tetanic cataract is characterized by the same characteristics as a diabetic its kind and is determined by the signs of the disease, it caused(underactive parathyroid glands).
- Toxic cataracts are most often seen in the form of opacities located under the capsule of the lens, with subsequent spread to the cortical layers.
Senile cataract has lots of features and depends on the degree of disease progression: initial, swelling, ripe and overripe.
This is the most frequently occurring signs that characterize cataracts and attributed it to one or another form.
The causes of cataractsThere are several positions that define the etiology of the occurrence and development of cataract. Among them are the following:
- Smoking and alcohol abuse.
- The preparations belonging to the group of corticosteroids.
- Prolonged exposure to the sun's rays on the eyeball.
The age of the person. Than he gets older, the lower the body's ability to resist the toxins coming from the environment. Moreover, reduced levels of antioxidants inherent nature.
Severe infections, such as malaria, typhus, smallpox and others.
- Poisoning of an organism, in particular a thallium, naphthalene, and other toxic substances.
- Burns to the eyes.
Myopia 3 high degree.
- We can not exclude a hereditary factor.
- Work in hot shops, where a high risk of radiation exposure to the eye.
According to some sources, more than 20 000 000 people worldwide the disease was the beginning of the occurrence of blindness.
Cause of cataracts and can be a poor environment, poisoning with various toxic drugs, ultraviolet or radiation irradiation, microwave and non-Smoking.
What to do if there is cataract?
First and foremost the manifestation of the first symptoms of cataract should consult a doctor. Diagnosis of this problem deals with the ophthalmologist. With the help of a slit lamp he will inspect and check the visual acuity of the patient. This will reveal pathology of the eye lens. To determine the complications in the fundus, the ophthalmologist will conduct his research, previously using the drops expand the pupil.
When the diagnosis of "cataract" do not delay treatment even if the vision is not disrupted. It is understood that this disease tends to progress, and the more to thicken the lens, the worse it will be to see people.
Developing cataract affects the patient's quality of life and eventually lead to complete blindness if not treated. In addition, for a long period of ignoring the treatment can lead to overgrowth opacities, increased intracranial pressure and development of glaucoma. Next is the withering away of the optic nerve, which ceases to irradiate the nerve impulses in the brain.
According to statistics, 12% of patients suffer rapid progression of cataract and the process of obfuscation takes an average of 6 years. Just a large proportion of patients, which is 15%, will completely lose the ability to see 15 years later. The major share of patients, which is 70%, will need surgical intervention after an average of 6 – 10 years.
So, the only correct answer to the question: "What to do if there is a cataract?", is to go on diagnostics to an ophthalmologist as soon as possible to begin treatment.
Stages of age-related cataractDistinguish 5 stages of cataract:
anterior and posterior capsular cataract;
coladera layered cataract;
The initial stage of cataractcharacterized by the appearance of opacities of the lens in the optical zone.
Blurred completely covers the lens with a Mature cataract. In this form of the disease a person can only distinguish light lighting. Clouding of the lens occurs at the periphery, i.e., outside the optical zone.
There is an immature cataract, which is characterized by clouding in the Central part of the optic zone of the eye. This disturbed visual acuity. Immature cataract is manifested so that the cloud point moving in the Central optical zone. In immature cataract the clouding of the lens leads to a marked decrease in visual acuity.
There is also a kind of overripe cataract. The lens becomes milky white, because the substance from which it is diluted.
How long does cataract?
According to research, on average, twelve percent of people who suffer from cataracts, the disease progresses to a very serious stage for four or six years. At fifteen percent of patients experience a slow progression of the disease in the last ten to fifteen years. Seventy percent of patients had progression of cataract takes 6-10 years. Required surgical intervention.
Complications of cataract
If a cataract was not diagnosed in time and not lechena, it can lead to such complications as:
Complete blindness or amaurosis. It cataract takes the first place among the diseases that lead to absolute loss of vision. The blindness does not occur abruptly, it is coming gradually. If you start treatment on time then this complication will be avoided. The diagnosis is amaurosis, when vision is completely lost.
The dislocation of the lens. This complication is characterized by the fact that it is full displacement and detachment from the holding ligaments. Vision has significantly deteriorated, and the lens is subject to mandatory removal.
- Facilitiesi iridocyclitis, which is manifested in inflammation of the ciliary body and iris. A person experiences severe pain in the eye and head, vascular mesh becomes bluish or red, the pupil bad move. When the acute process is resolved, the question of the removal of the lens.
Pakowana glaucoma is characterized by a secondary increase of pressure inside the eye due to the fact that the crystalline lens increases in size. The lens requires the removal and conducted therapy aimed at reducing the pressure.
Obscuration amblyopia. This complication often manifests itselfin children and is a result of congenital cataract. Characterized by the fact that the retina isnot receiving signals from the outside, atrophies and ceases to function, although this was healthy. Treatment of this complication is surgery only.
To avoid such severe complications, the disease you need to diagnose and treat under the guidance of professional doctors. To seek help should the manifestation of the first symptoms.
How to cure cataracts?In order to cure the cataract, it is impossible to delay treatment to the doctor. Therapy may be conservative in some cases, surgical intervention. With regard to medication effects, doctors prescribe the patient drops that improve the metabolism within the lens. Stimulation of metabolism helps to ensure that the process of formation of the cloud slows down. If there is a break in the therapeutic effect, the disease starts to progress again.
In most cases, for the treatment of cataract using the method of surgical intervention. Modern medicine has reached such heights that a person don't even have to go to the hospital. Most operations performed as an outpatient and after a short period of time the patient goes home.
The methods used for surgical treatment of the disease are varied. History has left the previously used method intracapsular extraction cloud point, as it is fraught with complications and often resulted in injury patients. A more modern method of surgical intervention is extracapsular cataract extraction, during which complete removal of the clouded masses. The capsule of the crystalline lens is retained and is replaced by flexible and rigid intraocular lens.
Another more modern method is the removal of the clouded masses using ultrasound. Then inserted intraocular lens. This method of surgical intervention is called phacoemulsification. The procedure itself takes little time and is done in 10 minutes. With this, one does not require the introduction of General anesthesia, a local anesthesia. Following phacoemulsification, the patient is administered the drops, and observation by an ophthalmologist at the place of residence.
In order for the post-operative period ended faster and not caused complications, the patient is administered special eye drops:
- Antibacterial effect have Floksal, Italics, Torbaks.
- Contribute to relieve inflammation Diclof, Intecolor.
- If the eye is experiencing increased dryness, be appointed substitutes of tears, for example, Axial or Systane.
- To the drops, containing hormones, are Maxidex and Oftan-dexamethasone.
To avoid complications, you must follow the recommendations of your ophthalmologist, which are reduced to the ban on lifting weights and being in a dusty environment. Also worth a fear of hypothermia and walks in windy weather.
Do not run your disease because with advanced forms of the disease may be complete loss of vision that cannot be regained. At the advanced cataract the lens swells, it becomes a barrier to the outflow of the fluid inside the eye.
Eye drops cataractsFor cataract treatment is used a variety of drops to stop the progression of the disease and prevention of complications after surgery. All of them can be appointed only the doctor. Self-treatment of illness is unacceptable.
This drug is used to treat cataracts and contains substances such as nicotinamide, citrom, adenosine and others. The use of this tool contributes to the fact that in the lens normal metabolism, aktiviziruyutsya the processes of reduction and oxidation. Drops act as antioxidant. The benefits of using tools is that they are not absorbed in the bloodstream, and the effect is less than a minute.
To use the drops while carrying a child, but only after consultation with the doctor. Of the most common adverse effects are allergic reactions, some tingling and a burning sensation in the eyes. Very rarely, you may experience dizziness, increased blood pressure and nausea. Sometimes people suffer from fainting and shortness of breath.
You cannot use in children under the age of majority and in case of hypersensitivity to the components included in the drops. It is important to refrain from wearing soft contact lenses. If irritation occurs, until the time of his disappearance not to get behind the wheel of a car and operate with other potentially dangerous machinery.
Drops used for cataract treatment, contributing to the resorption of proteins formed in the lens of the eye. In addition, Twinax helps to activate the enzymes contained in the anterior chamber of the organ of vision. The advantage of drops is that they have a low absorption, have no side effects and does not interact with other drugs. The drops can be used during pregnancy and in children only after consulting a doctor.
It is important to use the product for a long time, even if the therapeutic effect occurs promptly. You can not bury Quinax without first removing contact lenses. After making the drug should wait at least 15 minutes and only after that to put lenses into place. If there is a temporary blurred vision after instillation, the patient should refrain from work-related eye strain. To use the drops shown with cataract, senile, congenital, traumatic and secondary.
Drops used for the treatment and prevention of cataract that triggers the regenerative processes in the tissues of the eye. Taufon contributes to the normalization of metabolism in the eyeball, improves metabolic processes. For cataract treatment shall not be less than 3 months. As side effects, distinguish the possible occurrence of allergic reactions.
The drop can be used in traumatic, senile, radiation and other types of cataract. It should not be used in children, and in the presence of hypersensitivity to the main active substance (taurine). The pharmacy can be purchased without a prescription.
Sisomicin "Drops Skulachev"
Drops are used to prevent dry eye syndrome, often prescribed in the postoperative period. Help to produce its own tear, improve the composition of the tear film. Duration of treatment depends on the severity of symptoms and determined by the treating physician. If there is a need, the drug can be used with other eye drops, including for the treatment of cataract. However, it is necessary to sustain the interval between the Deposit of not less than 5 minutes.
Side effects besides allergic reactions are not marked. Should not be used in lactation and during gestation. Drops after opening the bottle will remain usable for 30 days. The age limit is 18 years. To purchase requires a prescription.
999 eye drops from cataracts and glaucoma
A prophylactic and therapeutic tool, able to remove eyestrain from the eyes, remove a cataract, toning elementseye, to reduce intraocular pressure. Do not use in cases of severe eye pain in case of allergic reaction. If you have an eye infection, you must consult with an ophthalmologist.
It is understood that the drug is not able to replace drug treatment, and serves as a preventive means having some healing effect.
Prevention of cataractsAt the risk of cataract development, it is important to use a comprehensive means of prevention. These include the use of drops (Quinax, Taufon, Vitamin, etc.), after prior consultation with the doctor.
Other preventive measures include the following:
- The obligatory visit to the ophthalmologist at least 2 times a year.
- Wear sunglasses that can block the penetration of UV on the eye lens.
- The use of foods rich in antioxidants and fruits and vegetables.
Regular measurements of sugar level in the blood and timely treatment of diabetes.
- The observance of safety measures when working with potentially hazardous substances, in hot shops, chemical laboratories, etc.
- Frequent hand washing, which allows some to protect the eyes from the ingress of infection of various origins, which reduces the risk of developing cataracts.
- Getting rid of bad habits.
However, doctors say that universal prevention methods of the disease are absent. Therefore, persons older than 65 is necessary to regularly visit an ophthalmologist and the detection of lens opacity in a timely manner to treat this pathology. As for the people, does not overcome this age limit, they need to visit a doctor at least once in 4 years and stick to a balanced diet.