Diseases of the spleen, diagnosis, prevention
Definition of spleenThe spleen is a major lymphoid organ. It has oval, slightly flat shape. The spleen resides in the left hypochondrium, behind the stomach. It is located in the vicinity of the pancreas, colon, left kidney, and slightly in contact with the diaphragm. The size of the spleen reach a length of 10-14 cm, width - 6-10 cm and a thickness of spleen is 3-4 cm.
The main part of this unique on the so called red and white pulp. The white pulp represents the lymphoid tissue, where lymphocytes are generated, and the red - filled most of the red blood cells. In addition to important for the human body hematopoietic function, the spleen is also engaged in the production of antibodies, and also determines the blood flow unnecessary harmful microorganisms and other foreign elements.
Since human body is constantly there is a certain disintegration of blood corpuscles, the main function of the spleen is considered essential to restore the number of cell elements of blood.
The spleen, as well as its neighboring organ, the pancreas, is the most active in the morning from approximately 9 to 11 hours. If you experience symptoms such as weakness in the legs, constant daytime sleepiness, loss of appetite, but a desire to eat sweets, worsening of memory and General exhaustion of the brain – we can talk about the problems associated with these organs.
Diseases of the spleen
As a rule, rarely are the place to be primary diseases of the spleen, much more is affected secondarily, and more often than it happens with other bodies. The following are the key dysfunctional state of the spleen, which can be diagnosed as a disease.
1) Congenital malformations. There are cases when a person has no spleen from birth. There were also cases when the size of the spleen does not fit in the usual framework, its form and structure are of a custom nature. Sometimes defined additional spleen, they even can be several. If the position of the spleen are poorly recorded due to weak abdominal muscles, she can move in the abdominal cavity; this phenomenon in medicine called "wandering spleen", and it occurs more often in women than in men.
2) Infarction of the spleen is a phenomenon that occurs quite often, however, the area of infarction, usually very small. The occurrence of a heart attack contributeleukemia and some other infections.
3) Volvulus of the spleen (or twisted feet) requires mandatory intervention of a surgeon, because lead to serious blood circulation of the body.
4) Abscesses. The causes of abscess of the spleen may be different – it can be a infarction of the spleen or typhoid fever. Typically, this process is painless, which in most cases ends with self-healing.
5) Cysts. In the spleen can be observed different types of cysts, but epithelial cysts are extremely rare. But serous cysts are more frequent, but they usually occur as ruptures, as a result of person injuries.
6) Various irreversible degenerative processes. In the elderly quite often there is atrophy of the spleen.
7) of the Tumor. Typical tumor of the spleen is lymphosarcoma. Primary malignant tumors rarely affect the spleen, and metastases to the spleen are even rarer.
8) an enlarged spleen (called splenomegaly). It may be associated with various pathological conditions of the human body. When swollen lymph nodes, fever or jaundice, with enlargement of the liver or anemia in severe form in all these cases, it may be revealed splenomegaly. In the case of some cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases – it may be measles, meningitis, scarlet fever, malaria , etc., in diseases of the blood, leukemia or hemolytic jaundice can also be enlargement of the spleen.
As splenomegaly is merely a reaction to another illness in the first place, it is necessary to establish the reasons for this pathological state of the body.
Diagnosis of diseases of the spleenHow to diagnose a particular disease of the spleen? For this medicine, there are several methods.
1) Method of questioning. In compiling the necessary history it is necessary to pay attention to all chronic infections, which had been ill the patient, and that could entailenlargement of the spleen. Also we cannot ignore serious cardiovascular disease, blood disease, a dangerous pathological condition of the liver, etc. – if any ever taken place in the history of the patient.
2) Method of inspection. This method is not very efficient, because it allows to diagnose enlargement of the spleen only in the case of a significant change in size in a big way. For this pathology the spleen emerges from under the ribs and raises the left half of the abdominal wall so that it is possible to notice any person, even to the naked eye.
3) Method of palpation. This is the main method of examination of the spleen, which needs to be diagnosed. Polerowanie is best done with the patient lying on his right side or on back, to relax the muscles of the abdomen better lying down with crossed legs. With the left hand, which is presumably in the center of the left ribs 7-10, it is necessary to fix in a fixed position the sternum. The right hand should lie flat on the stomach at right angles to the ribs. In this case, the fingers half-bent position you need to put a little pressure on the abdominal cavity.
When the patient takes a deep breath, spleen moves towards palpiruemam hand is directly under your fingers, so you can have a good feel for the lower edge of the body.
As a rule, if possible with your fingers probe the edge of the lymphoid organ, we can assume that you have a pathological increase in size. Although in practice in some cases people have excessively thin physique, especially in women, it is possible to determine the edge completely healthy spleen.
When carrying out the method of palpation is necessary to focus on what are the volumes of the spleen, its consistency, mobility, what is the nature of edges (jagged or smooth), as far as sensitivity, etc.
4) Method of modern x-ray examination. If you have a large amount of gas in the large intestine and stomach spleen and its edges are viewed much better. With this goal in radiography of the spleen, the stomach or the colon are trying to inflate artificially.
5) the Method of puncture of the spleen. This method is used when a large increase in body size. Before making the puncture the patient, he must take a deep breath and hold your breath. If this important condition is not fulfilled, the spleen is displaced to the side, and it may be damage to the capsule and start heavy bleeding.
In connection with such insecurity of this method of diagnosis use it only in cases of extreme necessity and with extreme caution. The puncture made very thin and sharp needle. The resultthe puncture turns a few small drops of blood. Blood smears obtained from the spleen, help to determine the nature of the incident changes to it.
6) the Method of laboratory studies and blood tests. With a rather large increase in the size of the spleen is imperative to fully investigate the blood.
To prevent the disease of the spleen, first and foremost, you need to lead a healthy lifestyle, do not run infectious disease and take necessary measures to strengthen the immune system – in General, to monitor the overall condition of his body. Special attention should be given to the protection of the abdomen and chest from various injuries and damages. The most serious damage is the spleen in case of severe injury, a blow received in a fight or as a result of serious dorozhno-transport incident.
Subject to regular blood tests and check the status of its indicators, it is desirable not to forget about the correctness of their food. It is not necessary to exhaust itself with diets that lead to anemia and General malnutrition of the body. Should limit their alcohol consumption, in particular not too high quality.
If problems with the spleen has already occurred, you should increase in your diet amounts of the following products: walnuts, beef liver, sea and river fish, beets and carrots, cranberries, broth from the berries of mountain ash.