Diseases of the heart and blood vessels and their symptoms
All pathology of the cardiovascular system should be treated after a thorough diagnosis under the guidance of a doctor, with the use of both therapeutic and surgical methods. To Orient in variety of diseases of the heart and blood vessels, and also understand when you need an immediate call brigade "first aid", and when you can do a visit to the local therapist, you should know the main symptoms of these diseases.
The content of the article:
- List of heart diseases and their symptoms
- Coronary heart disease
- Myocarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis
- Heart disease
- Cardiovascular insufficiency
- Diagnosis of heart disease
- The prevention of heart disease
- What kind of doctor treats heart disease?
- Answers to popular questions:
List of heart diseases and their symptomsCardiovascular diseases are classified into the following categories:
- Arrhythmia – changes in the rhythmic and sequential contraction of Atria and ventricles;
- Coronary heart disease – disorders of blood supply and the formation of scar tissue;
- Myocarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis – an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle;
- Heart disease – congenital and acquired dysfunction of the valve apparatus of the ventricles;
- Cardiovascular insufficiency – a group of diseases which are based on the failure of cardiac activity to ensure normal blood circulation;
- Dystonia – a violation of vascular tone;
- Hypertensive heart disease – a systematic increase in blood pressure.
All these diseases of the heart and blood vessels have various causes of development, symptoms, therapies and prognosis.
Normal heart rhythm and reducing your Atria and ventricles. This is closely linked with the functioning of the conduction system, guiding impulses to the heart muscle.
Causes of arrhythmia:
- Structural changes in the conductive system;
- Electrolyte imbalance;
- Autonomic changes in the Central nervous system;
- Endocrine diseases;
- Side-effects of drugs;
- Complications caused by coronary artery disease.
Diagnosis of arrhythmia is done using ECG, treatment of this pathology is quite complex and is tailored to the individual characteristics of the organism.
Types of arrhythmias:
- Ventricular asystole is manifested by the flickering and fluttering of the ventricles, occurs as a complication of heart disease, due to shock electrocution, overdose of digitalis, adrenaline, quinine (treatment of malaria). Forecast – possible sudden clinical death as a result of termination or a sharp fall in cardiac output. For relief of an attack of ventricular asystole should immediately begin resuscitation with external cardiac massage and artificial respiration. You need to call the cardiology team "ambulance";
- Atrial fibrillation is manifested shimmer and atrial flutter (250-300 times per minute), chaotic and spasmodic contraction of the ventricles. Occurs as a symptom of mitral valve of the heart, hyperthyroidism, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction due to an overdose of glycosides, alcohol poisoning. The patient may not feel the arrhythmia, as heart palpitations. Forecast – the occurrence of thromboembolism;
- Paroxysmal tachycardia is manifested as sudden onset and sudden ending attack, palpitations, heart rate is 160-220 beats per minute. Additionally, there is profuse sweating, increased peristalsis of the intestine, mild hypothermia. If the attack lasts for several days, these symptoms associated angina, weakness, fainting, increase in heart failure. Assistance in paroxysmal tachycardia – massage the area of the carotid artery, activation of the vagus nerve by pressing on the eye and the solar plexus, but in the same breath, strong rotation of the head. If these techniques are ineffective, so there is a ventricular tachycardia or myocardial infarction requires immediate medical attention;
- Sinus tachycardia is manifested by the frequency of the sinus rhythm of more than 90 beats per minute, occurs when a sudden decrease in blood pressure, significant fever, anemia, myocarditis. The patient has palpitations. Help – the breath, and massage the solar plexus and the region of the carotidarteries, pressure on eyeballs;
- Sinus bradycardia is manifested by slowing heart rate with rhythm sinus rhythm less than 60 beats per minute. Occurs with myocardial infarction, as a consequence of certain infectious diseases and drug side effects. The patient feels the heartbeat slowing, his limbs are cold, it may be faint or experience angina attacks;
- Arrythmia is manifested premature contractions of the ventricles that the patient feels like a sinking heart or strong strike. After that, you would reflexively take a deep breath. Treatment require frequently occurring systole, as they lead to the flickering of Atria and ventricles;
- Heart block is manifested by a slowing or complete cessation of the transmission of an electrical impulse in conducting system of the heart. The patient slows down the heart rate, he faints due to the fact that the brain is insufficiently supplied with blood, having seizures, diagnosed heart failure. Forecast – when intraventricular (full cross) the blockade of possible sudden death.
Learn more: What is arrhythmia? Causes and types
Coronary heart diseaseWith severe heart disease, which is based on the violation of the blood supply to the heart muscle, occurs myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and cardiosclerosis.
- Myocardial infarction , acute circulatory disorders of the heart muscle, which causes focal necrosis of her plots. As a result of necrosis of part of the myocardium is disturbed, the heart's contractility. A heart attack occurs due to thrombosis of the arteries that supply blood to the heart, blockage of blood vessels atherosclerotic plaques. The acute phase of infarction is characterized by a very strong chest pain, the intensity of which is not relieved by Nitroglycerin. Additionally, pain is felt in the stomach, a panic attack, hyperthermia, increased blood pressure, frequent pulse. Prognosis – the patient may die from cardiogenic shock or congestive heart failure. Emergency aid before arrival "first aid" – taking painkillers, Aspirin and large doses of Nitroglycerin.
- Stenocardia ("angina pectoris") – manifests as a sudden pain behind the breastbonedue to insufficient blood supply to the myocardium. The main cause of angina is atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. The pain of angina attacks, has clear boundaries, the emergence and remission almost immediately relieved by Nitroglycerin. The factor that provokes an attack of stress or physical strain. Contractive and pressive pain occurs behind the breastbone that radiates to the neck, jaw, left arm or shoulder, can be similar to heartburn. Additionally there is an increase in blood pressure, there is a perspiration, the skin becomes pale. If diagnosed angina at rest, these symptoms joins dyspnea, a feeling of acute lack of air. Angina lasting longer than 30 minutes – suspected myocardial infarction. First aid – Nitroglycerin under the tongue twice with an interval of 2-3 minutes, followed by a reception Corvalol or Validol to suppress the headache, then you should call cardiac ambulance.
Cardio – the defeat of the myocardium and heart valves, scar tissue formed as a result of atherosclerosis, transferred rheumatism, myocarditis. Symptoms – arrhythmia and conduction disorders. Forecast – formation of the aneurysm, the formation of chronic heart failure and heart disease.
Find out more: Causes, symptoms and treatment of cardiac ischemia
Myocarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis
This group of diseases characterize inflammatory processes in the tissues of the myocardium, caused by pathogenic microorganisms. Complement their negative effects allergic reactions and autoimmune formation of antibodies against tissues of its own body.
Types of inflammatory heart diseases:
Infectious-allergic form of myocarditis – arises after infectious diseases or during it. Symptoms: malaise, cardiac arrhythmias, pain in the heart area, shortness of breath, joint pain, slight fever. A few days later phenomena of myocarditis increasing and increasing. Formed heart failure: cyanosis of the skin, swelling of the feet and belly, severe shortness of breath, enlargement of the liver;
- Rheumatic, autoimmune, radiation myocarditis – acute and chronic forms manifested the following symptoms of intoxication: fatigue, hyperthermia, skin rash, nausea and vomiting. In the untimely appeal to the doctor appears deformation of fingers in the form of drum sticks and deformation of the nails in the form of a convex watch glass.
- Endocarditis – inflammation of the endocardium, i.e. the inner lining of the heart, covering the valve apparatus.
Pericarditis– inflammation of the membrane that covers the outside of the heart (pericardium).
Such symptoms require immediate access to a doctor, observance of bed rest. The cardiologist will prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Indomethacin), glucocorticoids (Prednisone), diuretic and antiarrhythmic drugs. Forecast for development of cardiov – a full recovery with time begun therapy.
Find out more: Myocarditis – symptoms and treatment
Heart diseaseThese diseases include dysfunction and abnormalities in the structure of the valvular stenosis (inability to fully open the valve), failure (inability to fully close the valves), the combination of stenosis and insufficiency (combined heart disease). If the defect is not congenital, it arises from rheumatism, atherosclerosis, syphilis, septic endocarditis, trauma to the body.
Types of heart diseases:
- Mitral valve disease (stenosis and insufficiency) is defined when listening to the heart a cardiologist, is characterized by the appearance in patients with a bright blush and red lips. Additionally diagnosed shortness of breath, palpitations, swelling of extremities, enlarged liver;
- Defect of the aortic valve (stenosis and insufficiency) on the 1st and 2nd stages of the disease there are no complaints, on the 3rd stage diagnosed angina, dizziness and a reduction in clarity of view. On the 4th stage, even the smallest load leads to cerebral and cardiac circulation: arrhythmia, dyspnoea, cardiac asthma;
- Aortic valve – on the 1st and 2nd stages, there are no complaints, on the 3rd stage of defect diagnosed angina, pulsation of arteries, the carotid arteries, the abdominal aorta, which is visible to the naked eye. The 4th stage is manifested by a pronounced heart failure, arrhythmia. 5-stage symptoms of the disease are even greater;
- Defect of the tricuspid valve – can be diagnosed by pulsation of cervical veins, enlarged liver,swelling of hands and feet. There is a direct correlation – the stronger the throbbing veins, the bole expressed valve insufficiency. Valve stenosis does not give a pronounced ripple.
Under this General term refers to diseases that lead to the fact that the heart is not able to ensure the normal pumping of blood. Cardiovascular insufficiency can be acute or chronic.
The types of acute heart failure:
- Cardiac asthma is a consequence of infarction, hypertension, myocardial infarction, aortic heart defect. The basis of pathology, stagnation of blood in the lungs because the left ventricle can not provide normal blood flow in the pulmonary circulation. In the blood vessels of the lungs, the blood accumulates, stagnates, its liquid fraction propotevaet in the lung tissue. The walls of the bronchioles thicken as a consequence, their vessels are narrowed, the air penetrates all worse. Bright symptoms of cardiac asthma: cough, called heart, wheezing, shortness of breath, fear of death, blue lips and skin. Heart palpitations and high blood pressure complement the overall picture. First aid is to give the patient semi-sitting position, under the tongue to put the Nitro, give Corvalol, to provide hot foot bath. Before arrival "first aid" to facilitate the work of the heart if you have 15-20 minutes to put on thigh rubber harness, trying to squeeze them is not the arteries, and veins. Prediction – in the absence of effect of resuscitation procedures, there is swelling of the lungs;
- Pulmonary edema – failure to provide in time the necessary assistance for cardiac asthma leads to the fact that the liquid fraction of blood propotevaet not only the bronchi but also the alveoli and stored in them. Air, which is still in a small amount penetrates into the overflowing liquid light, whisk this liquid into the pulmonary bubbles in the foam. Symptoms of pulmonary edema: a painful choking out pink foam that protrudes from the mouth and nose, bubbling breath, heart palpitations. Have excited the patient's fear of death, it is covered with cold, clammy sweat. High blood pressure sharply decreases with the development of the situation. First aid should be rapidly – the patient is placed semi-upright, give him a hot foot bath, the feet applied tourniquets placed under the tongue 1-2 tablets of Nitroglycerin. Intravenously or orally administered 2-4 ml Lasix or Furosemide. The patient needs fresh air, it easy to the maximum tight clothes, open the Windows. To edema flash pulmonary edematransportation to the hospital such a patient is impossible;
- Right ventricular failure develops as a result of incorrect transfusion of blood and its substitutes, lung disease (asthma, pneumonia, pneumothorax), as well as on the background of pulmonary embolism. There is an overload of the right heart, there is a spasm of the pulmonary circulation. Formed as a result of this congestion reduces the functioning of the right ventricle. Symptoms: shortness of breath, drop in blood pressure, cyanosis of the lips and face, severe swelling of the veins in the neck;
- Thromboembolism – to the above symptoms joins pain behind the breastbone, expectoration of blood during coughing. Pathology arises as a result of getting a blood clot in the vessels of the pulmonary artery. Forecast – the blockage leads to death. With this condition need urgent taborskaya therapy, the introduction of thrombolytics (Aminophylline, Lasix, Strophanthin) before arrival "first aid". The patient at this time should be in semi-lying position;
- Collapse – as occurs when a sharp expansion of blood vessels and reduction of circulating blood volume. Causes of collapse: an overdose of Nitroglycerin or funds, lowering blood pressure, poisoning, consequences of individual infections, vegetative-vascular dystonia. Symptoms – sudden weakness and dizziness, shortness of breath, sudden decrease in blood pressure, zapotevanie veins, thirst and chills. The skin of the patient becomes pale and cold to the touch, there may occur loss of consciousness. Assistance before the arrival of "emergency" – to raise his legs above his head to provide blood to the brain, the body to hide, to drink a hot strong coffee for the early rise in blood pressure.
Learn more: Heart failure – causes and symptoms
HypertensionThe true reason for the development of hypertension has not been fully elucidated. Her appearance is provoking mental trauma, obesity, tendency to salty foods, genetic predisposition.
Stages of hypertension:
In the first stage the pressure rises to values of 160-180 mm Hg. article on 95-105 mm Hg. article the pressure Rise characteristic of climate change, physical or emotional stress, weather changes, inclusion in the diet spicy dishes. Additional symptoms: headaches, tinnitus, insomnia, dizziness. Onthis stage there are no changes in the heart and kidney functions;
- In the second stage, the pressure rise to 200 to 115 mm Hg. article During the holidays it does not fall to normal, remaining slightly elevated. There are changes of the left ventricle (hypertrophy), decreased renal blood flow, spasm of cerebral vessels;
In the third stage, the pressure increases to values of 280-300 mm Hg. article 120-130 mm Hg. art In this period is not excluded strokes, angina, hypertensive crisis, myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, destruction of the retina.
If in the first stage of hypertension is sufficient to reconsider the lifestyle and diet to the blood pressure returned to normal, the second and third stage need to be treated pharmaceutical preparations on prescription.
Diagnosis of heart disease
According to medical statistics, about 60% of premature deaths are accounted for by cardiovascular diseases. A diagnostic study of the condition of the heart muscle and its functioning will help in time to make the correct diagnosis and begin treatment.
Common diagnostic methods:
- Electrocardiogram (ECG) recording of the electrical impulses emanating from the body of the subject. Is monitored using an electrocardiograph. To evaluate the results of ECG only for the specialist. He will be able to identify the arrhythmia and the lack or reduction of conductance, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction;
- Heart ultrasound or echocardiography – a highly informative study that allows to evaluate the complex cardiovascular system, to detect signs of atherosclerosis, see blood clots, trace the blood flow. Patients after myocardial infarction, Echocardiography is carried out regularly. The procedure helps to detect heart defects, aneurysm of the aorta and ventricular cancer processes. With the help of a heart ultrasound to measure the wall thickness of the heart muscle and pericardium, to control the operation of the heart valves;
- Magnetic resonance imaging helps to identify the source of noise in heart, to find the area of myocardial necrosis, to identify vascular dysfunction;
- Scintigraphy of the cardiac muscle is performed using a contrast agent, which after entering the blood helps to evaluate the blood flow;
- Cardiac monitoring for Holter monitoring of dailychanges in the functioning of the heart and blood vessels using a mobile device, fastened on the belt of the subject. It helps to determine the cause of the abnormal heart rhythm and chest pain.
Undergo such studies at its own initiative, but to correctly interpret their results can only a qualified specialist-a cardiologist.
The prevention of heart diseaseThe main factors that trigger heart diseases.
- Sedentary lifestyle;
- Smoking and alcohol abuse;
- The overabundance in the diet refractory animal fats, salts;
- Prolonged psycho-emotional stress;
To reduce the risk of heart disease and blood vessels, cardiologists offer in everyday life to follow the simple rules:
- To comply with the principles of healthy eating, to reduce the amount of fat in the diet and increase the amount of fiber;
- To give up Smoking, not abusing alcohol;
- To limit the time spent without movement, often exercise in the fresh air;
- Sleep, avoid stress, be treated with humor to difficult situations;
- Use minimum of salt in the cooking process;
- To replenish potassium and magnesium in the body intake of trace elements complex;
- To know the age and sex norms of blood sugar, blood pressure, body mass index, and seek out indicators.
If there were preconditions to development of pathologies of the heart and blood vessels, should immediately to eliminate the risk factors, preventing the occurrence of serious diseases.
What kind of doctor treats heart disease?
At occurrence of dyspnea, chest pain, swelling, acceleration or deceleration in heart rate, significant and systematic increase in blood pressure, you should check the condition of your heart and blood vessels. For examination and possible treatment you need to consult a cardiologist. This doctor treats diseases of the cardiovascular system andconduct follow-up rehabilitation.
In case of need catheterization or angioplasty vessels of the heart may require the help of a vascular surgeon. The treatment of arrhythmias is under the direction of electrophysiologist. He will be able to fully investigate the causes of heart rhythm disorders, to implement the defibrillator, to ablation of the arrhythmia. Of open heart surgery conducted by doctor specialization heart surgeon.
Answers to popular questions
In what diseases of the heart that give disability?Approach to the assignment of disability in the case of cardiopathology recently changed.
Now it give with the complex of symptoms:
- Significant sustained disruption of the functioning of the organs and systems that occur due to heart disease and its consequences;
- Violation of the ability to work, to exercise self-service and non-professional activities (this refers to the ability to communicate, to learn, to move, to navigate in space);
- The need for social protection measures.
To assign a disability requires a combination of these symptoms, considerable disability. Once in a 1-2 year re-examination, as patients ' health-cores may change for the better.
Mainly on disability may qualify patients with the following diseases:
- State after myocardial infarction;
- 3 the degree of arterial hypertension with lesions of the organs;
- Heart disease;
- Severe heart failure.
Can EKG show heart disease?
Such widespread method of diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies as electrocardiography, able to show the activity of the heart tissues and give the opportunity to study its rhythm.
However, ECG can not informative to determine:
- Heart disease;
- The speed and direction of flow in the valve;
- Excessive or insufficient activity of the cardiac muscle (a sign of myocardial infarction);
- Does the pericardium (heart bag) fluid accumulation;
Does the aorta signs of atherosclerosis.
Is it possible for heart disease to consume alcohol?
The answer is categoricallynegative.
For heart disease ingestion of even small doses of alcohol leads to the following consequences:
- Increase in blood pressure;
- The decrease of the effect from drugs, acute hypertension;
- The worsening risk of heart attack in patients with cardiac ischemia;
- To increase the probability of vascular collapse;
- The accelerated development of atherosclerosis because of the ability of alcohol to counter the liver in the development of healthy lipids and loss of properties of the inner surface of the vessel to resist the attachment of platelets;
- The development of adipose ("alcoholic") cardiomyopathy, resulting in degeneration of myocardium and thinning of the walls of the heart chambers and the loss of their elasticity.
Attentive to their health, timely inspection, the implementation of the recommendations of the doctor will help to avoid the serious pathologies of the cardiovascular system and their fatal complications. To prevent risk factors, to adhere to the rules of a healthy lifestyle and treat yourself and your loved ones.