Vaccinations for and against
In the middle ages, doctors began to think about how to warn similar outbreaks of epidemics. In the 12th century to prevent smallpox in China used the wound, separated from cows suffering from smallpox, which for man is not dangerous. Edward Jenner in 1796, first vaccinated with cow pox to man, hence it turned out the term vaccination, from the Latin "vacca" cow. And starting from 1798 in Europe is massive vaccination against smallpox. However, the scientific basis of immunization are formed only after a hundred years, thanks to the work of Louis Pasteur.
What is a vaccination? To answer this question, it is necessary to have an idea of the work of our immune system. Try to briefly describe the functioning of the immune system.
The immune systemis our body guard, which protects it from foreign biological substances. Recognizing foreign substances, it eliminate it, while "remembering"your answer below if necessary use it when dealing with a similar virus. In the absence of the immune system all we would be easy prey for viruses, fungi, bacteria and helminths. Slight skvoznyachok would be difficult, an infectious disease with fatal outcome. What happens in people with immunodeficiency, the immune system which is weak function. And it does not matter it is innate or acquired ( e.g. HIV infection) – the effect is the same.
One of the main tasks of the immune system, as mentioned – recognition of"native"and"alien"biological substance. Native biological substance meets the immune system in the womb, knowledge about the"alien"gets by inheritance, as well as many other genetic quality. In this case it is called hereditary or innate immunity. Still,"alien" biological substance immunity are more likely to learn through direct contact with him. It will be called acquired immunity, it is not as stands, as an innate and inheritance is not transmitted. Acquired immunity is divided into two types, active and passive. In order to purchase the active immunity, the person must have been ill the disease or vaccinated ( to be vaccinated).
The principle of vaccines is that the body you enter the individual agents or parts of the pathogen iscan be proteins or polysaccharides. Can also be used whole dead or weak live pathogenic substances, or the vaccine obtained by genetic engineering. Thus, the body itself produces antibodies, allows you to quickly fight the infection. Active immunity can to work for a year or longer, for example, vaccination against flu acts 1 – 2 years, measles-for decades, the chickenpox in a lifetime.
Passive immunity appears when injected into the body ready-made antibodies from another human or animal. Ways to acquire passive immunity can be naturally, the principle of the embryo receiving maternal antibodies through the placenta. Also artificial by injection of antibodies, acquired from human serum had undergone the disease, or again obtained by way of genetic engineering.
Vaccines may experience side effects, the most common are an allergic reaction. It manifests itself on the skin in of redness, at the site of injection, it is also possible itching, peeling skin. Also can be more serious reaction, as the increase in body temperature, tremors, a sharp drop in blood pressure. Because of the danger of occurrence of side effects, a be from the vaccinations. But now the vaccine, which includes themselves microorganisms that replaced the drugs that contain components microorganisms. This is a more gentle version of the vaccine, it is virtually adverse reactions. Also does not provoke the development of the disease in immunocompromised people. This kind of vaccine, brand new stage in the development of vaccination.
But, despite continuous improvement methods of vaccination, many people still do not wish to be vaccinated. Some people vaccination is contraindicated, some suggest that they contraindicated, someone has an opinion in principle on vaccinations. A arrogant think they don't get sick, or think that the vaccine is more evil than the disease itself.
To do or not to do the flu shot is a personal matter each. But it is not necessary, however, to forget how hard it is occurs flu, what are the serious complications it can cause, especially in children and the elderly. Such serious diseases as polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, cause of disability, with 100 percent probability, and sometimes even to death. Consider that in children the risk of Contracting these infections is very high, so we have no right to risk the health of children. After vaccination against these diseases the risk of developing almost equal to zeroopasen dazhe kontakt s istochnikom infekcii. lechenie dannyh zabolevanij ochen dlitelnoe, dostatochno dorogoe, i zachastuu maloeffektivno. poetomu luchshe obezopasitsya, pri pomoshi privivki, chem pytatsya vylechitsya. po dannym zarubezhnyh issledovanij, neposredstvennye rashody, napravlennye na profilakticheskie meropriyatiya v vide privivok v desyatki raz menshe, chem lechit samo zabolevanie. tak stoit li vse - taki otkazyvatsya ot privivok? konechno, eto dolzhen reshit kazhdyj sam. no prezhde chem prijti k kakomu to resheniu, neobhodimo vzvesit vse za i vse protiv, i uchest gde risk, a gde polza.
risk, pri provedenii vakcinacii, uvelichivaetsya v nizhe izlozhennyh situaciyah:
– neverno podobrana dozirovka vakciny;
– neverno vybrana tehnika immunizacii;
– narusheny pravila sterilizacii priborov;
– narusheny sposoby hraneniya i transportirovki vakciny;
– narushena sterilnost vakciny;
– ne uchteny protivopokazaniya.
predupredit razvitie pobochnyh yavlenij, mozhno, esli predvaritelno prinyat antigistaminnyj preparat, no tolko prokonsultirovavshis s vrachom.
vakcinaciya protivopokazana v takih sluchayah:
– immunodeficitnye sostoyaniya;
– esli uzhe nabludalas reakciya na predydushee vvedenie vakciny v vide povysheniya temperatury tela vyshe 40 gradusov s;
– pri obostrenii hronicheskoj bolezni ili zabolevaniya v ostroj forme;
– provedenie immunosupressivnoj terapii.
v drugih situaciyah vakcinaciya nanesti kakoj-libo vred ne mozhet.
v sluchae esli vy vse-taki prinyali reshenie otkazatsya ot vakcinacii, to, soglasno stati 5 federalnogo zakona ot 17 sentyabrya 1998 goda. №157-f3 «ob immunoprofilaktike infekcionnyh boleznej», « grazhdane pri osushestvlenii immunoprofilaktiki imeut pravo na otkaz ot profilakticheskih privivok». v etom sluchae soglasno s etoj zhe statej « pri osushestvlenii immunoprofilaktiki grazhdane obyazany v pismennoj forme podtverzhdat otkaz ot profilakticheskih privivok», etot pismennyj otkaz sleduet otdat vrachu. kak pravilo etogo dostatochno, chtob nikakih voprosov o privivkah ne vozniklo.