Macular degeneration of the retina
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What is macular dystrophy of the retina?
Macular degeneration the retina is a disease that affects the Central area of the retina of the eye resulting in impaired vision. First of all, it decreases the lumen of the vessel shell, which nourishes the retina. In the result, the tissues begin to experience a lack of necessary substances and oxygen. Disruption of the macula provokes impairment of vision or complete loss. Most often such cases occur among patients older than 50 years. While macular degeneration is called age.
Thus, the main factor in the development of the disease – the aging process. The probability of occurrence of macular degeneration increases with age. To a greater extent vulnerable women, due to the fact that their life expectancy is higher than men. More likely to develop macular degeneration as persons with hereditary predisposition to it. So carefully take care to preserve vision patients should close family members who suffer from this disease. It is believed that a great predisposition to macular degeneration the Europeans. The risk of vision loss in African Americans for this reason significantly lower.
Macular degeneration is dry and wet. The first type of the disease is more common and characterized by progressive atrophy of the macula. Vision loss in this case is slow. The cause of wet macular degeneration becomes too brittle and permeable blood vessels. They participate in the restoration of the macula, however, lead to bleeding and cause swelling of tissues. In wet macular degeneration the quality of vision decreases much faster, so in the absence of treatment, the disease quickly leads to its complete loss.
Causes of macular degeneration of the retinaThe main causes of macular degeneration of the retina include:
The lack of vitamins and minerals. Significantly increases the disease risk unbalanced diet, which leads to a lack of antioxidants. They act on free radicalsthus slowing the aging process and the development of many diseases, including macular degeneration. To compensate for the lack of antioxidants in the body can include in the diet vegetables, fruits, nuts, spices, e.g. cinnamon, cloves. Vitamins C and E also affect the quality of vision. Ascorbic acid, moreover, prevents premature aging of the body. You can find vitamin C in fruits of rose hips, lemons, and vitamin E rich sunflower, peanut and sesame oil. For proper absorption of these elements in the body must have sufficient zinc.
- Omega-3 fatty acids. They not only prevent the disease of the organs of vision, but also positively affect blood vessels, enhance the immune system. Sources of fatty acids are fatty fish like salmon, vegetable oil.
Saturated fats. In contrast to the useful omega-3 fatty acids, the lack of which provokes the development of macular degeneration, an excess of saturated fat on the contrary has a negative impact on vision.
- Bad habits. Some scientists believe that Smoking is one of the main factors that increase the risk of retinal diseases.
The symptoms of macular degeneration of the retinaAge-related macular degeneration, which affects elderly patients, manifest in the deterioration of Central vision. Marked distortion of objects, straight lines may appear curved. The development of age-related macular degeneration is not accompanied by pain, but patients often complain of increased sensitivity to light, have difficulty reading and recognizing faces.
In the later stages of the Central degeneration of the retina, there is a dark spot. Because of this, patients can't see, it is difficult to drive, to read and write, especially in low light. On the development of macular degeneration is evidenced by poor distinguishing colors.
This disease unlike many others is not manifested in the form of pain. Therefore, the macular degeneration is often a long time unnoticed, and treatment is made at late stages, when vision is already weakened. Complete loss is rare,but patients can't see what disabilities. It is therefore recommended to be screened regularly by an ophthalmologist to prevent development of macular degeneration. The earlier the disease is detected, the more likely to maintain visual acuity.
Diagnosis of macular degeneration of the retina
The main diagnostic method is a traditional an ophthalmologist examination, which is carried out using tables. Thus is determined the adequacy of acuity of Central vision.
Examination of the retina and of the retinal vessels is carried out during ophthalmoscopy. The eye specialist examines using a special lamp with biophilosophy. When the symptoms of macular degeneration are still poorly expressed, using optical coherence tomography.
Another diagnostic method allows to determine the presence of abnormalities on your own through the test of Amsler. For it will need special bars. The distortions in it are evidence of the impairments.
Treatment of macular degeneration of the retina
In the treatment of macular degeneration used the conservative method, in which the patient is assigned to registrationkey funds, antioxidants, immunomodulators. However, to date the use of such drugs deemed ineffective. To achieve good results in the fight against macular degeneration allows the use of laser therapy. This procedure significantly improves visual acuity.
Similarly laser therapy photodynamic valid. However, it has less destructive effect on the retina, will not damage the membranes of the eye. In this method of therapy is the intravenous injection of medication-photosensitizer and then the laser beam processed certain parts of the retina. The photosensitizer is destroyed, it releases oxygen atoms. They reduce swelling of the retina, thereby increasing visual acuity.
egtyareva Marina Vitalievna, ophthalmologist, optometrist