Juniper: description and medicinal properties
Common juniper is a plant native to the entire Northern hemisphere. Juniper loves the sunlight and nourishing mild background. The plant tolerates drought, but in the very hottest months requires 3 one-time watering.
The juniper height is able to reach 15m. This tree is a survivor and can stand up to 500 years. Ways of planting juniper many, among them are: cuttings, grafting, cuttings and seeds.
The content of the article:
The locus of the juniper, its description
The Latin juniper sounds like Juniperus, which translated into Russian language means "thorny". Juniper can be represented as a tree, and bushes. The plant may have same-sex and opposite-sex flowers. It belongs to the family of Cypress, a coniferous evergreen shrubs (trees). Another called Juniperus juniper or Heather.
The plant is found throughout the Northern hemisphere. It grows in the lands of the Arctic and up to the mountain subtropics. East African juniper inhabits African countries. Since ancient times this shrub in the people assigned magical powers. In order to protect the house from evil spirits and attract good luck to the family, our ancestors wove juniper wreaths, using for this purpose branches of the plant.
With a significant cluster of large trees, juniper forests are formed. However, they occur in nature very often. You can check these landing in Central Asia, in the Mediterranean, in Mexico and in North America (South of the country). High junipers are not very common. They are mostly understorey of deciduous and coniferous forests. Low junipers inhabit rocks and rocky cliffs adjacent to mixed forests.
Worldwide found more than 60 species of junipers. About 20 of themfound on the territory of the countries of the former Soviet Union. However, the inhabitants of the Caucasus and Central Asia this plant is called Archa, not juniper.
The vast majority of plants tolerates drought and loves the sunlight. Soil juniper no special demands, although prefers light and nutritious lands. Depending on the plant species, some of them grow only in the Arctic, and some only in subtropical zones. All species of juniper do not tolerate shading.
Although it is considered that the trees live for about 400-500 years, some representatives of these coniferous evergreens step over the age line in 600 years.
Root, needles and cones of Juniperus
The leaves of young trees hoevenii, and as they get older, become scaly. The buds have no scales, most often they are naked. Although sometimes there are plants in which the buds are pressed against the branches short leaves. Scales covered only one form of juniper – Juniperus drupacea. Host plants are 3 needle-shaped leaves with longitudinal veins.
As for needles, it often has a greenish-blue hue, is represented by a needle with three facets. The ends of the needles sharp.
Male cones look like stamens, arranged in pairs and covered with scales. Each stamen has an opening boot.
Female cones consist of whorls of carpels (one, two or three pairs). Each whorl has 1 or 2 ovules.
The buds of the plant are shown in gray or blue balls. Their scales are tight to each other, which does not allow cones to fully open. Conventional plants is formed from 1 to 10 seeds, which are located separately from each other. The bumps are formed on second year of life, juniper. From stone fruit plants seeds fused together.
The root of the plant axis. During the planting of juniper, it is very important to maintain its integrity, as damage to the root the risk that the tree will get sick. In addition, it deteriorates the resistance to wind.
You can select the following modes of reproduction of the shrub (tree): seeds, grafting, cuttings, layering. The last way reproduce primarily creeping junipers. If you intend to propagate the plant by seed or cuttings, they need to prepare in advance. This is done in September. For 5 months the seeds need to be subjected to stratification. Rare and valuable species of juniper is propagated using vaccination.
Medicinal properties of juniper berriesJuniper berries are edible.
Moreover, to take them in food very useful since they have an impressive variety of properties, including:
- Improvement of digestion. The berries contain the bitterness that naturally simulate the work of the digestive tract. It helps get rid of heartburn and indigestion.
Reducing bloating. Flatulence you can take the juice of juniper berries.
- Long been known diuretic properties of the berries. They are used in the treatment of urinary tract infections due to the body faster toxins and bacteria.
- The berries have antimicrobial and antifungal properties.
- Juniper berries act as a powerful antioxidant, which means that they can be used in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. No less useful berries for skin, hair and nails. They prevent premature aging of the dermis, prevent the formation of wrinkles.
- If you make juniper berry tea, you can quickly get rid of diseases of broncho-pulmonary nature. This drink has expectorant effect and contributes to liquefaction of viscous sputum.
- In berries contains natural inulin, which means that they can include in their menu for people with diabetes.
- Due to the diuretic effect of the juice of the berries is useful to take people with excess body weight.
Contraindications to the use
Like any other product, the fruit of juniper have certain contraindications for use, including:
- Pregnancy and breast-feeding;
- The presence of Allergy to softwood;
- Kidney disease, namely glomerulonephritis and nephritis;
- Severe degree of hypertension;
In General, you should not use the recipes with juniper during exacerbation of any disease. Well, if before the beginning of treatment, the person will consult with a specialist. Treatment the juniper fruit should not exceed 2 weeks, otherwise you can cause serious damage to the renal parenchyma.
RecipesDecoctions and infusions of juniper berries, which has useful qualities, to cook is not difficult, even at home. There are many recipes and all of them are time-tested.
Juniper infusion for the treatment of the oral cavity. You must take as many berries as can fit in a tablespoon and pour a Cup of boiling water. To withstand the infusion to cool, strain and apply as a solution for rinsing the oral cavity at stomatitis. You can also use this solution for readjustment of the throat pharyngitis.
The infusion of juniper to provide a diuretic effect. Will require the same amount of berries and water, as in the previous recipe, however, the holding time shall be not less than 3 hours. Take the medication you need after meals for 1 tablespoon 3 times a day. It is an effective treatment for cystitis and pyelonephritis.
A decoction of juniper to normalize the menstrual cycle. To prepare the broth you will need a liter of water and 2 tablespoons of berries. The resulting mixture should be boiled for 5 minutes, then cool and strain it. Use the decoction should be on for 12 hours doing every 2 hours 1 SIP.
A decoction of juniper to treat bronchitis. You will need 1 tablespoon of berries and 200 ml of water. The resulting mixture should be soaking for 15 minutes in a water bath. Then the broth to cool, strain and bring tothe source volume. Drink the decoction 3 times a day before meals for 1 tablespoon.
A decoction of juniper for treatment of joints. Need for 100 g the fruit and branches of plants, which must be filled with water and boil for 10 minutes. For such amount of juniper you need to take a glass of water. After cooking, the broth should strain and take baths with him. Good help similar remedy for arthritis and rheumatism.
A decoction of juniper for the treatment of skin diseases. To prepare the broth should take 200 g twigs, cover with water and let them infuse for 2 hours, and then boil the infusion. The time of exposure on low heat for a quarter of an hour. Then the broth should be filtered and to give him baths. Good to use this remedy for eczema and dermatitis
Ointment of juniper for the treatment of herpes. For the preparation of ointments will need to take 2 tablespoons of berries and grind them, then pour the vodka and put in a dark place for 14 days. After the specified time the vodka will need to be drained, and the remaining raw materials to be used to treat herpes lesions by applying it to the lips.
Juniper berry oil for skin and hair. And the fruit and branches of juniper can be used in cosmetic purposes. They need to take equal proportions and mix with vegetable oil (1:3). The resulting structure should withstand for 10 days, then apply as a mask for the skin and for hair care.
Juniper essential oil: properties and applicationsJuniper essential oil in its composition contains terpenes, camphene, terpineol, tannins, borneol, macro and microelements, organic acids. The essential oil has anti-bacterial properties, it is able to purify the air from pathogens. Therefore, since it was used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Effects that can be obtained through the use of essential oil of juniper:
- Choleretic effect;
- A diuretic effect;
- Diaphoretic effect;
- Expectorant effect;
- The disinfectant effect;
- Regenerating effect;
- A sedative effect.
Juniper essential oil used to stimulate digestion, to enhance lymphatic drainage, and also as anti-rheumatic remedies.
Juniper essential oil is indicated for the following diseases:
- Diseases of the joints: arthritis, rheumatism, arthritis;
- Varicose veins;
- Dermatological diseases: psoriasis, dermatitis, ringworm;
- Respiratory infections, including tuberculosis;
- Infections of the genitourinary system;
- Diabetes mellitus;
- The treatment of nonhealing wounds.
In addition, juniper essential oil is widely used in cosmetology. It has anti-cellulite properties, improves skin tone, fights stretch marks. A few drops of oil of juniper, added to a night cream, increase its disinfecting quality. Therefore, this tool can be used for people prone to acne and acne.
You can add juniper oil to the day cream, which will improve the complexion, tighten pores, reduce swelling and further hydrate the dermis. A few drops of oil of juniper will enrich any shampoo or conditioner for the hair. Regular use of such products will help to give them a natural Shine to eliminate dry and itchy scalp, to prevent hair loss.
You can add juniper oil to the foot bath. This will allow to get rid of calluses and corns. The skin of the feet become soft and tender. In addition, you will be able to get the powerful deodorizing effect thatis an excellent prevention of fungal diseases.
Use juniper essential oil as follows:
- 5 drops of oil is sufficient for enrichment 10 g any beauty products (mask, cream, shampoo, conditioner, etc.).
- 5 drops you need to fill in a diffuser for aromatherapy.
- 3 drops is sufficient for instillation in aromacean.
- 6 drops is enough for taking a bath with essential oil.
- 1 drop of oil dissolved in 100 g water for ingestion. You can pre-mix the oil with 1 teaspoon of honey.
Although juniper essential oil is a very useful tool, prior to its ingestion, consult a doctor. With regard to outdoor use oil, it is first necessary to conduct an Allergy test.
Juniper in the landscape design
Juniper is able to ennoble any landscape design, and look and juniper shrubs, and trees. They are often grouped together, creating a kind of green hedge, although sometimes, you can see single spaces.
Low-growing junipers look great on the slopes and in the overall decor rocky gardens. Due to the planting of juniper, you can prevent soil erosion, to strengthen existing slopes. Juniper low maintenance, easy to forming and shearing.
Juniper looks great paired with flowering shrubs, perennials and grass species used for decorative purposes. However, juniper has one drawback – the plant does not tolerate polluted air and smoke, therefore, in urban environments trees and shrubs are almost absent. But planted in the country junipers will delight their owners with pleasant, powerful aroma of pine needles, which intensifies after rain or in contact with branches of direct sunlight.
Use juniper for the design of residential premises. For this purpose, use dwarf forms of plants. Juniper feels good "in captivity", however, requires regular moisturizing in the form of spraying. Designers cleverly shape the bonsai of juniper, applyingminiature seedlings. They have the exact shape of an adult tree that looks very attractive. It is important to keep these dwarf shrubs away from sunlight, as they prefer partial shade. If you plan to make such a mini-junipers in the fresh air, you should protect them from strong winds. In addition, ornamental trees are sensitive to frost, so their tops need to cover up when you are cold. The needles are sensitive to snow, which can cause burns on the leaves, so the landings have to be shed.
Planting shrubs should be in containers made of ceramics, which must be pretty deep. It is important to remove trees with yellow needles, and wash the stem and leaves, using for this purpose the watering can. The bark of the bonsai is good to clean with a toothbrush. If the tree is large, you can use a normal brush for clothes.
Immediately after planting, young bonsai begins to grow rapidly, however, in the future its growth is slowing. Frequent stops, juniper does not like, enough to update his place of residence 1 in every 5 years. This is best done in March. After transplanting into a larger container, you should expect an increase in bonsai. If you do not want to increase the height of the plant, 1/3 of the roots during the transplant can be cut. As the soil is well suited compost, leaf and river sand, taken in equal proportions.
To the juniper growing in breadth and in height, you have pinched he has all the young shoots on top. It is also important prischipnut shoots are those that are located inside of the crown. This should be done in autumn or spring, but in any case not in the winter.
Almost any style of bonsai can be grown from junipers. For forming the tree, you can use fishing line. It wound up in the autumn, and after 8 months off. A year later these manipulations can be repeated. This is done until the tree is fully formed and will not take the desired shape.
Diseases and pests of juniperAs with any plant, juniper amaze pests and diseases. The tree is very subject to rust, which manifests itself in the occurrence on the branches of bubbles. Of these entities goes mucus with yellowish and gelatinous consistency. To fight rust, you will need to cut off any damaged branchesthen the plant should be treated with a solution of arteria. On 10 l water will need 50 g drug. Should be wood at least 4 times with rest periods of 10 days.
Juniper responds well to micronutrient fertilizers and adjuvants. It should be remembered that the tree may not get rust, but to transmit this disease to other plants. Therefore, you should plant it away from berries and fruit bushes.
Another disease juniper is Schutte. If this fungus affected needles, turns yellow and persists for a long time on the branches. In early autumn the needles formed black growths in size 0.15 cm. These fungi infect primarily the weak trees and shrubs. To destroy Schutte the plant should be sprayed with fungicides and treated with products containing sulfur and copper. All dried branches as the needles are removed.
Common juniper pest is aphids. If parasites are on the plant a lot, they can permanently destroy him. Aphids most often appears in places where there is a lot of ants, so you should control the education of their nests in close proximity to plantings of juniper. If aphids start to multiply, it is necessary to wash the Bush with a soap solution, repeating this procedure 1 time a week. You cannot prevent the soap from falling on the roots of the juniper. Therefore, they are best to be covered. Against aphids, you can also use the drug is "Fitofarm"that is bred from the calculation 20 g on 10 l water. Those branches that were affected by aphids, it is necessary to be removed during spring pruning.
Juniper scale is another pest plants. The larvae of these insects suck juices from the needles, causing her to fall. In addition, the scale insects damage the bark of the shrubs, which leads to the formation of crooked shoots, which dry out very quickly. To prevent pests, it should be in March to put on the shoots of the juniper track glue. Do well with insects straw hunting zone. Also they are made of burlap. When insects are not very many, they simply cannot be clean off with a brush. If the pest had greatly increased, the trees treated with the drug"Carbopol". On 10 l water will need 70 g powder.Settles onjuniper is such a pest as the species. This small mosquitoes, no more 2 mm in length. They lay on the needles of the larvae of the bright red or yellow. Parasitic on trees, the larvae contribute to the death of branches. For pest control of the plant must be sprayed with insecticide and diseased shoots should be cut and burned in the fire.
Spider mites are another pest of juniper. View insects on the branches of a plant is the thin web that leads to death of needles. Ticks are active in warm months, they are able in one season to lay larvae 4 times. For pest control trees sprayed with sulfur colloid. Ticks also can't stand the smell of garlic and dandelion. So you can spray the juniper decoction of these plants. If a lot of mites, you need to use the drug is "Karate". On 10 l water will need 50 g funds.
The pine Sawfly is another common pest of juniper. He lays on the wood green striped larvae. To remove the insects, you can use the decoction of insecticidal plants. You can also perekipat circles formed around the tree trunk and spray it with drug "Fufanon". On 10 l you need 15 g funds. The same method fight the moth that eats the insides of young junipers. Mole is afraid of institito on the basis of mineral oil. For example, an effective drug is "Desist". Treat the wood 2 times with an interval in 2 weeks. In 10 l of water plant 2.5 g funds.
Often in may can be observed on the juniper butterfly pine looper, which lay on the tree larvae. In summer emerge from their cocoons, the caterpillars that eat huge amounts of pine needles. In September the caterpillars form under the ground and in fallen needles cocoons. In the spring the life cycle of pests is resumed. For destruction of pupae should carefully dig up the tree trunks circles.
Growing juniperJuniper is propagated by seeds or vegetatively. Before sowing seeds need to be subjected to stratification. And in the fall, preparing boxes with soil, you can plant seeds. Then the boxes need to be brought to the street and left under the snow all winter. In may get the seeds from the boxes from under the snow and visivaem them in pre-made beds.
But from seed it is impossible to obtain ornamental plant, so for these purposesused method of grafting. To do this in the middle of the spring to cut from the old plant cuttings and clear them from the needles. When you cut the stalk must be cut it together with a piece of old wood. Next, the cuttings need 24 hours to drop in any growth stimulator. Rooting is carried out in sand with peat (in equal shares). Cuttings must be covered with tape. During the whole time of growth and development of the cutting it should be sprayed. 30-45 days from cutting forms a root system. The end of June – beginning of July is the time for planting cuttings in the beds. In the winter they need to just cover the spruce branches. Within two to three years will last rearing cuttings. And after this time ripe cuttings can be planted in a permanent place.
Care juniperJuniper – undemanding to the soil plant. It also needs watering infrequently, only if summer fell dry, it is necessary to produce watering. Young plants need soil loosening and freeing from weeds. The best time for spraying the juniper – this evening. Best juniper grows in soil of medium moisture.
After landing immediately to produce a mulch of peat or wood chips. Plants that love the heat, you need to mulch for the winter. Spring should be to cleanse the plant from mulch, as the soil it can rot.
The juniper is very slow growing, and this should be considered when pruning. Pruning shall be dry branches. In the first year after planting in winter you need to cover the young plants with plastic film.