Home / Treatment / stepeni i tipy ozhireniya, kak lechit?

stepeni i tipy ozhireniya, kak lechit?

Obesity is a disease in which a person has excessive fat deposits in the subcutaneous tissue and in other tissues and organs. This pathology is evident in the increase in body weight due to the accumulation of adipose tissue by 20% or more from the average. People with obesity suffer from various sexual disorders, experience psychological and physiological discomfort, over time, they develop irregularities in the joints, spine and internal organs. Excess deposition of adipose tissue increases the risk of cardiovascular pathologies, diabetes, diseases of the liver and kidneys. Accordingly, there is increased risk of fatal outcome. In this regard, obesity requires treatment, which often consists of three components: diet, exercise, psychological aid to the patient.

Found that men from obesity suffer twice as often than women. The age at which people usually start to get better is between 30 to 60 years. Only in the Russian Federation, the disease affects 30% of people of working age. Are overweight and another 25% of the population. The problem of obesity is concerned, scientists all over the world. Who experts call it a disease epidemic of our time, which already affects millions of people. Moreover, the risks of developing obesity are almost not affected by the person's social status and his nationality.

To assess the risk of obesity, should take into account the following facts in numbers:

  • Angina and coronary artery disease people with obesity suffer 3-4 times more often than people with normal body weight;
  • Hypertensive heart disease diagnosed in people with obesity 3 times more often;

  • Acute respiratory and viral infections, pneumonia and other diseases in people with obesity are more severe and protracted. They often have a variety of complications.

To diagnose the patient's obesity, you need to determine his body mass index (BMI). To calculate this index is quite simple. The formula proposed by the who in 1997, it remains relevant today. So, to determine BMI by the following formula: weight in kilograms divided by the height of the individual in meters squared.

The received value allows to calculate the individual BMI of the person, which is characterized by the following values:

  • If the BMI is less than 18.5, the person has a deficiencyof body weight;
  • If the resulting value is in the range from 18.5 to 24.9, the individual's body weight is considered normal;
  • If the value is in the range from 25.0 to 29.9, the body weight is considered excessive;
  • The first degree of obesity diagnosed by BMI of 30.0 to 34.9;
  • The second degree of obesity is diagnosed when BMI range between of 35.0 and 39.9;
  • Third and fourth degree of obesity is diagnosed when BMI exceeds a value of 40.

And a BMI of over 30 indicates that a person has are a direct threat to health and requires medical assistance.

The content of the article:

Symptoms of obesity

Symptoms of obesity may seem obvious for every man is the presence of excess body weight. Indeed, this is the most specific sign, indicating a problem. Fat deposits are the abdomen, back, flanks, shoulders, hips. While the muscles of such people is often weak and underdeveloped.

Other symptoms of obesity will be the following:

  • Changes in appearance. People have double chin, men often suffer from gynecomastia (breast increase in size). Belly fat covers folds that resemble an apron;
  • Often, people with overweight occurs inguinal and umbilical hernia;

  • Sick faster tired, drowsy, sweating such people improves;
  • As the progression of the disease itself with shortness of breath as suffering from cardiovascular system;
  • Due to violations of the metabolic processes malfunctions in the digestive system. Often troubled by nausea, develop constipation;

  • The joints and spine suffer from excessive load, and they have pain;
  • People with obesity have a tendency to edema;
  • Women may menstrualcycle, men suffering potency. Libido is reduced;
  • Folds and excessive sweating lead to the development of skin pathologies, among which the prickly heat, boils, eczema, pyoderma, acne. On the abdomen, hips and thighs stretch marks. High friction are particularly affected.

Depending on where fat, there are three types of obesity. So, if fat is stored mainly in the upper part of the body, and the figure begins to resemble the shape of the Apple, the doctors talk about abdominal type of obesity. This condition is considered very dangerous for health, because it threatens the development of cardiovascular pathologies.

When fat deposits begin to accumulate in the lower part of the body, and the body itself is shaped like a pear, then experts say about femoral-gluteal obesity. Most often this distributes the fat from the female. This type of obesity is a dangerous development of varicose veins, venous insufficiency and articular pathologies.

As for the third type of obesity, it is called mixed. In this way the fat is distributed evenly across the body.

Depending on the view of obesity will vary symptoms. The differences are expressed in the speed with which gain weight, as well as the fact whether a person has problems with the endocrine and nervous system.

Based on this release:

  • Symptoms of alimentary obesity. Gradual weight gain. Fat is distributed evenly, although sometimes he accumulates more on the thighs and abdomen. The endocrine system is functioning normally;
  • Symptoms of hypothalamic obesity. Body mass increases very quickly. Fat is stored more on the buttocks and thighs, and stomach. The person experiences constant hunger, which causes him to overeat. Especially noticeably increased appetite in the evening. These people drink a lot of water, as they are all the time thirsty. Patients get up at night to eat. Patients present tremor of the limbs, they complain of dizziness. As rapidly gaining weight, the skin can not withstand such loads. It formed stretch marks pink color. Women often suffer from infertility, on the face can grow hair, menstrual cycle is disturbed. As for men, they primarily affect sexual function. From the nervous system have been the following pathology: having frequent headaches, insomnia appears.Blood pressure patients often enhanced;

  • Symptoms of endocrine forms of obesity. For violation of some of the endocrine glands, the patient may begin to gain weight. Body fat is distributed unevenly throughout the body. Women acquire masculine traits in men, in contrast, begins to increase breast, on the skin stretch marks. Furthermore, the person suffering from the symptoms associated with a particular disease of the endocrine glands;
  • Symptoms of lipomatosis. This form of obesity should be considered separately, as the body weight increases due to hyperplasia of fat cells benign nature. On the human body lipomas occur that do not get sick, have a symmetrical form. Mostly lipomatosis exposed men. A special form of the disease is Dercum lipomatosis, in which the hands, feet, and body appear itchy, painful lipomas.

The causes and factors that contribute to obesity

Obesity often begins to develop due to the fact that there is a disruption of the normal balance between energy consumption and supply of this energy along with food. It is established that the main cause of obesity is overeating. It is in 90% of cases contributes to the fact that a person begins to gain weight. The abundance of calories received from food cannot be consumed 100% by the body. Therefore, the excess turns into fat and deposited in the so-called fat depot. The depot serves mainly subcutaneous fat, abdominal wall and internal organs.

Over time fat increase body mass increases, which has a negative impact on health. It is proved that only 5% of cases obesity cause metabolic disorders.

Provoking factor that has a direct impact on the food behavior of the person is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. Than it is more work, the higher the speed of ACTH and cortisol. While growth hormone responsible for the breakdown of fats, begins to be produced in smaller amounts. In parallel in the blood increases insulin levels, impaired absorption of thyroid hormones. All this leads to increase in appetite and slow the absorption of fats.

So, the main cause of obesity is overeating.

However, it is possible to allocate some factors promoting the recruitment of extra pounds, among them:

  • Low physical activity, sedentarylife;
  • Genetic predisposition to enzyme malfunctions. This is reflected in excessive system activity and lipogenesis in low activity of the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of fats;
  • Irrational nutrition. Fat begins to accumulate in the case when in the diet in large quantities are carbohydrates, salt, fats, and sugar. Dangerous abuse of alcohol and eating in the evening, especially before bedtime;
  • Endocrine diseases, among them disease, Cushing's, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism , and insulinoma;

  • Overeating on a background of stress;

  • Sometimes obesity is caused by a physiological condition of the person. For example, women eat more than normal during pregnancy, while breastfeeding, and then it becomes a habit;
  • Often the reason that people overeat, it becomes the hormonal drugs, treatment with psychotropic drugs.

Depending on the causes leading to obesity, there are primary and secondary obesity. Primary develops due to exposure to any external factors: overeating, low physical activity, the prevalence of food fats and carbohydrates, etc. Often people have a family predisposition to be overweight.

Secondary obesity is the weight gain due to hereditary diseases (syndrome Gelineau, adipodinitrile dystrophy, etc.) or due to cerebral pathologies (mental disorders, brain tumors , etc.).

Obesity and type 2 diabetes

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are closely interrelated, since the presence of extra pounds aggravates the risk of developing this dangerous disease. It is established that a third degree of obesity increases the likelihood of developing diabetes 10-fold. By itself, the type II diabetes is a disease of acquired and non-insulin dependent.

It is the lifestyle that leads to weight gain, it becomes a triggering factor of increase of level of blood sugar. However, with adequate physical activity entering blood glucose transformered into energy, because it requires the muscles to work. Ifa man leads a sedentary lifestyle while consuming large amounts of carbohydrates, then the processing of glucose will need more insulin. Excess sugar contributes to the formation of fat not only in the subcutaneous layer, but also around internal organs. Naturally, for the production of insulin the pancreas has to work harder which leads to depletion of the body. Thus, on the background of overeating people gaining extra pounds of fat and in parallel he develops diabetes.

To avoid such a situation, you need to properly organize your diet, should avoid drinking a large amount of carbohydrates and increase the physical strain on the body. If the time to take the necessary action, diabetes type 2 will be eliminated and do not require insulin therapy.

The degree of obesity

There are four degrees of obesity, each of which is characterized by a certain set of characteristics. Is determined by the degree of obesity by calculating the body mass index. The higher the degree of obesity, the greater the risk of development of various pathologies.

Obesity 1 degree

About obesity 1 degree, say in the case when BMI is high and in the range of 30.0 to 34.9, and. If a man has a first degree of obesity, then he needs a medical examination, followed by preparation of individual treatment programs. Found that a BMI greater than 30, is a direct threat to health. Although many patients at this stage of obesity may not provide absolutely no complaints related to the condition of his body.

However, the obesity of 1 degree – it is an occasion for a thorough examination and weight loss.

Moreover, that person will increase body weight, may develop the following symptoms:

  • The occurrence of unexplained weakness;
  • Fatigue, excessive sleepiness;
  • Increased sweating;
  • Irritability;
  • Dissatisfaction with appearance;
  • Nervousness;
  • Shortness of breath;
  • From the digestive system is not excluded violations such as constipation and intermittent nausea;
  • You may experience swelling, which are localized mainly in the lower extremities;
  • Begin to appear the first problems with joints and spine, which are expressed in pain of low intensity.

When lifestyle changes in the first stage of the development of obesity all pathological processes are reversible.

Obesity of 2 degrees

Obesity 2the type diagnosed in the patient in that case, if BMI is very high and is between is 35.0 and 39.9. The mass of the human body, compared with normal, increased by 30-40%.

More massive obesity leads to the fact that all symptoms of ill health, which disturbed the patient with the first degree of obesity, begin to grow. The weakness increases, the person often is in a depressed mood. To nausea with bitter taste in the mouth, which indicates disruption of the liver and gallbladder.

Increase joint pain, increases the load on the spine. Already at this stage of the development of obesity may increase blood pressure, a disorder of the heart muscle. Lower extremity swelling increase and can persist throughout the day.

Obesity 3 degrees

About obesity 3 degrees said in that case, if the body mass index is excessively high and exceeds the mark of 40. There is an increase in actual body weight compared with the ideal at 50-99%. To determine ideal body weight, middle-aged men want from own height in centimeters, subtract 100, and the female 110.

As for the symptoms of 3 degrees of obesity, they are as follows:

  • Progressive disorders of the heart and blood vessels (increases hypertension, tachycardia, auscultated heart tones of the deaf);

  • Suffers respiratory system with the development of chronic pulmonary heart disease and the formation of respiratory failure;
  • There are disorders in the digestive system;
  • The parenchyma of a liver riddled with fatty infiltrates, which hinders the normal functioning of the body;
  • Sometimes develop pancreatitis and chronic cholecystitis;

  • Pain intensified, suffering ankle and knee joints.

In women, the obesity of the third degree most often leads to disruption of the menstrual cycle, sometimes menstrual periods. Men always deteriorates potency.

Obesity 4 degrees

Obesity 4 degrees is characterized by a significant excess BMI (40 or more). The actual weight of the person more than the ideal body weight in half. Such patients often weigh more than 150200 kg. Known cases when body weight people has reached 300 kilograms or more.

With such severe obesity affects all the organs and systems of man. Often these people are not even able to carry out aself-care. Patients develop multiple severe diseases, among them diabetes, endocrine disorders, heart failure, etc. suffer the skin that a person is not able to hygienically handle. Because bed sores are formed. With 4 degrees of obesity 100% of patients receive a certain disability group.

People with such overweight require urgent treatment, as in the absence of imminent death is inevitable.

Photo obesity 4 degrees

Start is a disease is not worth it. What could be expected from people who don't think about your health? For illustrative purposes, photos of obesity 4 degrees:

To increase To increase

How is obesity treated?

Treatment of obesity involves a complex effect on the body. It is important not only to simultaneously reduce body weight, but to maintain normal. The weight loss will have a positive impact on human health overall. However, the weight must escape gradually. So, in the first six months of treatment should not weight more than 10% of the total body mass. If that goal has been realized, it is possible to continue the fight against obesity.

Non-drug treatment of obesity the following:

Compliance with a low calorie diet

If calorie daily diet will be reduced to 1,500 calories, on average, for six months, get rid of 8% of body weight. If a person has moderate obesity, of total ration, it will just subtract about 500 calories to start to lose weight. In more advanced cases need to reduce caloric intake is on average 1000 kcal. In this case, you will be able to lose 0.5 to 1 kg 7 days.

It is not excluded that the patient will be recommended very low calorie diet with a daily intake of 800 calories. But such schemes can be implemented only for a short period of time, and the patient should be under medical supervision. More than 3 months of such a diet to sustain you should not.

It is possible to conduct fasting witha maximum limit of the daily diet. However, this technique is only applicable in the hospital with 3-4 degree of obesity.

As a rule, to lose weight people manage to quickly enough, but the main danger lies in the fact that they subsequently begin as quickly lost weight to gain, coming eventually to a higher degree of obesity. To avoid this requires a change in eating behavior in General, with the obligatory correction of lifestyle.

Read more: Diet obesity 1, 2, 3 and 4 degrees

Physical activity

Physical activity gives you the opportunity enhance the effect of the diet. In addition, an active lifestyle can reduce the risk of a huge number of diseases, primarily of diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Selection of therapy is carried out individually and depends on the level of training of the person from the state of his health. Almost without exception, patients with obesity are recommended walking for 30-45 minutes a day or more.

As for the medical correction of obesity, it boils down to the medication.

They are divided into two groups:

  • Drugs-anorectic are either reinforce the feeling of satiety or suppress appetite.
  • Drugs that reduce nutrient absorption in the intestine.

Read more: 10 most popular tablets for weight loss

They are accepted only when response to diet and exercise. Self-treatment is strictly prohibited, as these medicines have side effects. In addition, some of them can cause dependence.

The most preferred at the moment, drugs are the drug meridia (Sibutramine) and xenical (Orlistat). Action meridia is based on the fact that the patient faster comes a feeling of satiety. This leads to the fact that he eats less food. Xenical, in turn, contributes to the deterioration of the absorbability of fats in the intestine.

We should not forget about the psychological care for patients with obesity, besides that such people are prone to depression and nervousness, they need the correction of eating behavior and lifestyle. In this respect, effective psychotherapeutic interviews and hypnosis.

Not eliminated surgical treatment of obesity. With this purpose remove a part of the small intestine, reducing the absorption of nutrients by the body. In some cases, spend gastroplasty, during whichform a small stomach.

Also popular in the world practice of interventions such as gastro-bypass surgery and gastric banding. Through these interventions, people quickly lose up to 20 30 kgbut the long-term effects of such operations remains poorly understood. Therefore, such treatment is only applicable in patients with 3-4 degree of obesity, and only in that case when other methods of struggle with excess weight do not bring positive effect.

On topic: Shots (injections) for weight loss – a divorce? The pros and cons

Answers to popular questions:

  • How to find out if obesity in humans? In order to know whether a person is obese, you must calculate the body mass index. It is calculated according to the formula BMI = weight in kg / height in meters squared. The phase-obesity indicates increased from 25.0 to 29.0 and. If the number is larger, the person is already obese.

  • Is it possible to get pregnant when obese? Getting pregnant when overweight, but grade 3 and 4 the chances of conception are extremely small. In that case, if pregnancy still occurs, there is a high risk of development of various pathologies of pregnancy.

  • Does obesity affect the potency? Yes, obesity has a negative impact on the potency. Especially in this plan is dangerous hypothalamic obesity with deposition of fat in the lower body. Problems with potency observed in virtually all men with 3 and 4 stages of obesity.

  • The obesity is a watermelon? Watermelon contains a large amount of sucrose – fast carbs that contribute to weight gain, so obesity can be consumed in very limited quantities.

  • Take the army with obesity? The army did not take obesity 3 degrees, when the BMI is in the range from 35.0 to 39.9. In this case, the man is considered temporarily unfit (for up to 6 months). During this time he should undergo inpatient survey. Such a decision may be rendered again for another 6 months. If the treatment of obesity does not give a positive result a year later, the man declared partially fit and free from conscription.