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Before birth the condition of the expectant mother meets obstetrician-gynecologist. After the appearance of the baby born comes the so-called neonatal period. It lasts 4 weeks and all the while the child is watching the neonatologist. Caring for newborn health— the main specialization of this profile.
This is the most difficult adaptation period of life, the kids and their mothers especially need support, advice and professional assistance. Neonatologists provide it in hospitals, hospitals and specialized departments for premature babies. At this age children can be identified of the disease, which in the future can lead to complications and disability.
The task of the neonatologist is to prevent these processes, to diagnose the disease and prescribe the necessary treatment. Typically, neonatologists are specialists of wide profile. They have to deal with a variety of childhood pathologies and to take an active part in the recovery of young patients.
The duties of a neonatologist and basic functionsChildbirth is a very important step not only for the expectant mother. Modern women are very responsible approach to the choice of doctors. It is important who will deliver and monitor the condition of the child immediately after its birth. Women have become interested in not only professionalism and qualification of doctors, but the condition and equipment of maternity homes. This is the right approach and a wonderful opportunity to eliminate all the risk factors during and after childbirth. The presence of the neonatologist, the first pediatrician of the baby plays a very important role in his birth. From the participation and professionalism of a specialist depends on the welfare of adaptation and health status of the child in the future.
There are maternity hospitals that is designed for healthy moms, whose pregnancy is progressing without complications and child birth is expected in time. For the identified violations during the period of pregnancy and threats of premature birth, women are placed in specialized medical institutions. In such hospitals, focused on the problematic birth and the possible health problems of the unborn child, all conditions are created for the resuscitation and survival of kids. Their condition andhealth watch around the clock neonatologists. Urgent help of specialists of this profile may be needed in cases where in normal birth there are complications and an emergency situation.
What cures a neonatologist?
The first month of the baby many call life-changing. Alteration occurs in all organs and systems of the baby. Changing the circulation, the lungs begin to breathe, the child meets with new conditions of survival and not always this process runs smoothly and without problems. Immediately after birth may develop diseases, which deals specifically with the neonatologist.
Denote the most common:
- Constipation (diarrhea);
- Children's cholera;
- Diaper rash, rashes;
- Umbilical hernia, bleeding, etc.
For what follows neonatologist?
The doctors monitor the health of the baby and is responsible for its safety. They know all about developmental disabilities, the diseases and at any moment ready to help. Its effectiveness depends on many factors, the main task of the physician to obtain the most complete information about the detected violation. Diagnosis is based on a study of the status of the following organs of the newborn:
- The stomach. The feeling of the baby's stomach refers to the mandatory measures. So neonatologist evaluates the condition of the liver and spleen of a child and determines their sizes. During the inspection are established features of the stool from a baby and how was the discharge of the original canal. In the revealed signs of congenital abnormalities appoint additional examination.
- Neck. Probing the neck and collarbone, the neonatologist determines the absence or presence of damage, which the child could receive during childbirth. When the so-called muscular torticollis, which is characteristic for some babies, the doctor can detect the shortening of the muscle.
- Head. After the baby is born, the neonatologists sure to examine the condition of the skull of the baby. Visual and palpation the examination allows to determine the size of the fontanelles, bone health, availability of generic tumors, swelling and other abnormalities.
- The heart and lungs. Using the stethoscope the doctor listens to the baby's heartbeat, pulse and frequencybreathing. A good specialist will always notice the deviation and take action.
- Genitals. Newborns boys inspect the area of the testicles. By palpation determine the state of the scrotum. The girls are studying the condition of the labia.
- Muscles. General diagnosis after the birth of a baby includes the compulsory study of muscle tone. Neonatologist flexes and extends the limbs of the child, which can detect the presence of abnormalities. The most common is the physiological hypertonicity. This condition is characterized by power tonics and violation in the work of the flexor muscles.
- The hip joints. Studying the hip joints, the doctor pushes the baby's legs. In normal limbs divorce adequately, if this process is hindered, there is the likelihood of developing dysplasia. We also study the symmetry skin folds on the legs of the baby.
- Reflexes. Have a lot of non-congenital reflexes. By studying reactions to stimuli and specific manifestations of the reflex functions, neonatologist evaluates the condition of the nervous system of the baby.
When to seek the advice of a neonatologist?Many of the non-congenital conditions that require attention and involvement of a neonatologist. Among them the most common are umbilical hernia, umbilical bleeding and pathology, dubbed "wild meat". The latest manifestation is associated with the formation of the piece of meat in the belly button. He remains after eliminating the umbilical cut. The cause of bleeding from the navel may be not well tied with the umbilical cord. Neonatologists resolves this issue fast enough. As for the umbilical hernia, the causes of their appearance can be several. The development of the pathology often associated with poorly bandaged cord, perevozbujdeniem and loudness of the baby, strong gases. Umbilical hernia is not considered dangerous for infants, however, the physician should be aware of the problem.
Tips and expert help may be required at the onset of diaper rash. They usually appear in the genital area, buttocks and lower abdomen. First or mild diaper rash appears as skin redness. The second (middle) degree is characterized by the appearance of erosive formations. The most severe, third degree diaper rash causes the development of ulcers. These conditions cause discomfort, they can bevulnerable to infection and often delivering baby pain. Neonatologist can save a child from this trouble.
Tests that may be set by the neonatologist
In even the most severe cases, when the infant detects congenital malformations and intrauterine infections, to survey and research trust exclusively of the doctors-neonatologists. They know how to take blood from a newborn, to calculate the dose of medication or an IV.
The need for analyses immediately after the birth of a child is dictated by the increase in the number of serious hereditary diseases. To detect and prevent the doctor prescribes three main analysis aimed to determine blood group, RH factor and presence of serious genetic diseases (neonatal screening). The baby bled still in the hospital. The sample applied to the test strip and sent to a laboratory. If you suspect a genetic condition, alert the child's parents is considered mandatory. This is done for subsequent treatment in the endocrinology clinic or the medical-genetic consultation, and development of an effective treatment program for a child. In cases where the diagnosis is not confirmed, special notice to parents of the child are not provided.