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Oncology is a highly specialized branch of medicine, which task is investigation of the mechanisms of emergence and development of various tumors. As you know, focuses on malignant formations, United under the common name of "cancer."The results of the work of oncologists are methods of treating cancer and preventing growth of any tumors at all stages of development. If you are looking for the answer to the question"what heals oncologist?", then, following from the above, it is easy to make the right conclusion. Oncologist deals with the treatment of tumors.
The main areas of Oncology
With the spread of cancer and increase the amount of data collected about them stood out such specific directions:
- Oncodermatology – studies of skin tumor;
- Oncoendocrinology – tumors of various endocrine glands;
- Hematology – tumors blood-forming organs, blood and lymphatic system;
- Oncohaematology and oncoproctology – the study of tumors of the digestive system and rectum, respectively;
- Oncohematology – liver tumors;
- Onlinepropecia – tumors of the kidneys and lead channels;
- Oncomammology – tumors in the mammary glands;
- Onmentally cancers and tumors of the glands and organs of male and female reproductive system respectively;
- The urologic Oncology – tumors of the bladder and ureters;
Ecopolitology – pulmonary tumors;
- Cardioangiology – tumors of the heart;
- Neuro Oncology – tumors in the Central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord);
- Psychoonkologie – studies the impact of cancer on the mental state of patients, and their relationship with the medical staff and loved ones;
- Oncoimmunology – explores the possibilities of immunological drugs in the treatment of cancer.
- Radiation Oncology – developing methods of treatment of tumors using radiation;
- Cancer chemotherapy – explores the methods of treating cancer with antineoplastic agents (chemical substances and preparations, oppressive development of tumors);
- Surgery – the use of methods of surgery for removal of tumors and elimination of consequences of cancer;
- Pediatric and geriatric Oncology is studying the occurrence of cancer in children and older people;
- Ecoepidemiology – holds statistics on cancerous diseases in certain territories and in the General population.
Cancer is, in essence, are system, so the oncologist must understand the characteristics of the structure and treatment of all organs and tissues. In addition, each medical oncologist has specialized skills and knowledge according to their organ or system (for example, oncomammology, ecogastronomy, etc.). Simply put – oncologist supervises the treatment of those bodies in which the developing tumor.
What cures a oncologist?
Tumors developing to the pathological dimensions that fall within the scope of the oncologist. They can be relatively harmless (benign) or aggressive towards the body (malignant).
Let us examine closely their distinctive features:
- Benign tumors are composed of cells similar to those in tissues in which there is proliferation. These cells have no tendency to infiltration or metastasis, and therefore do not penetrate into adjacent organs and tissues. In addition, the growth rate of benign tumors in most cases is quite low.
- Malignant tumors differ in growth rate. Their cells are abnormal activity, ability to penetrate into healthy tissue and metastasize to distant organs.
Diseases are treated by an oncologistModern experts in the field of Oncology is able to treat a number of cancers:
- Leukemia – proliferation of blasts, immature cells (acute form) or maturing and Mature bone marrow cells(chronic form), leading to deterioration of blood formation until its complete termination, the formation of cytopenia and immune suppression.
- Melanoma – appearance of malignant tumors of pigmented skin cells that produce melanin (birthmark, moles, etc.).
- Hodgkin's disease – a tumor in the lymphatic system that can spread rapidly through the lymphatic vessels and metastasize to different organs.
- Myeloma – cancer of plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the progressive destruction of bone tissue.
- Sarcomas – originate from extraskeletal soft tissues (muscles, fat, blood and lymph vessels, mesothelium, etc.).
- Neuroendocrine tumors – these include gastroenteropancreatic tumors, cancerous lesions of islet cells, tumors in the endocrine glands (prostate, breast, adrenal gland, ovaries, thyroid, etc.).
- Tumors of the mediastinum – between lungs, under the sternum.
- Tumors of the Central nervous system – appear in the nerve tissues of the spinal cord and brain, violate the coordination function and lead to severe nervous disorders.
- Fibroids – also known as fibroids. Often occurs in women of reproductive age in the womb. May long is a benign condition but without appropriate treatment in most cases is the malignancy of the tumor.
Read more: Causes and symptoms of fibroids
When should obratitsja to the oncologist?
Scientists physicians highlighted a number of specific symptoms, the presence of which any person is strongly recommended to go through cancer screening.
- Signs of bleeding from internal organs (nose, genitals, along with urine or feces);
- There's a huge weight loss, which is not an adequate explanation;
- Skin lesions and suspicious changes in a mole or wart;
- The increase and compaction of the lymph nodes without signs of infection;
- Seal in the soft tissues (particular attention is paid mammaries);
- Migraine is accompanied by impaired coordination, vision or hearing;
- Regular causeless diarrhea with abnormal dischargefrom the rectum;
- Prolonged lack of appetite, nausea and sharp deterioration of health;
- The discomfort associated with pressure in the abdomen, chest, throat, areas of the pelvis that persists for a long time.
When you want to visit ankola?
Even if the typical symptoms of cancer are absent, there are other equally important reasons to visit the oncologist:
- Preventive observations after passing of course of treatment of any cancer. Is carried out twice a year or more often (doctor's appointment);
- Women over the age of 45 years, regularly needs to visit oncomammology. For nulliparous women, the age is reduced to 40 years. Men it's time to come in for preventive treatment to an oncologist after 50 years.
- Cirrhosis of the liver, polyps in the intestine and breast are the reason for regular visits to the oncologist.
- All members of the family with cancer should be screened because of a genetic predisposition to cancer;
- Workers of hazardous industries, where high levels of known carcinogens (sunlight, dust, gases, radiation) are subject to an annual examination of the oncologist.
Inspection of the oncologistThe main task of the oncologist in the inspection process is the detection of tumors and the study of its properties.
A patient who received a referral to an oncologist should undergo primary inspection, which is:
- The medical history and list of complaints on the basis of which compiled primary symptoms of the disease;
- Visual examination with palpation of organs, on condition of which the patient complains;
- The purpose of the tests to identify the specific type of tumor.
Among the procedures that are required to collect information about tumors, oncologists are frequently used:
- Computer and magnetic resonance tomography – layer-by-layer images of a certain part or the entire body, where you can see the location, shape and size of the tumor;
- Ultrasound helps to detect and evaluate the size of tumors in body cavities;
- Mammography is a specific procedure for the study of the mammary glands;
- A blood test for the detection of tumor markers;
- Cytological smear from the cervixof the uterus;
- Puncture abnormal tissue with subsequent histological examination.